How do intelligent students become the best
Learning: Intelligence cannot make up for a lack of interest
Interest and motivation can also be encouraged. This should also be the task of schools. This applies in particular to socially segregated schools with difficult starting conditions (so-called "remaining schools")
It should be undisputed that the effects of school contexts lead to substantial educational inequalities.
For socially segregated schools, this means that in schools in which children with socially burdened parental homes accumulate, social structures can easily arise that severely impair or even prevent successful learning. Bearing in mind the social differences in the possession of certain cultural values and attitudes, in the disposal of certain language skills and communication styles, there are seldom model effects of classmates who use these cultural skills when children from lower social classes stay mainly among themselves in schools bring with you to your parents' house. In other words: in these segregated schools, children hardly find any role models among their classmates who could have a positive influence on their educational aspirations. Rather, it is more likely that there will be negative motivational and learning-avoiding peer group effects.
Since socially segregated schools predominantly have their catchment area in segregated residential areas, pupils from these areas bring their specific habitual patterns of perception, thought, language and action with them, which solidify or even strengthen when there are more children with the same social environment in the school . It is obvious that these students from the lower social classes differ in access to school and education from students from the middle and upper classes. Due to socialization, the children of the middle and upper classes encounter an environment in which much is done for the sake of the cause. You do sports without wanting to become an athlete, you play the piano because you want to be able to do it, you read books because it is fun. Commitment is also practiced when no clear, individually attributable, short-term benefit is to be expected. It is precisely this commitment that de facto has the greatest long-term benefit - also in the education system. There is also a habitual closeness to the teachers, who mostly come from the same milieu. Pupils from precarious backgrounds do not have these habitual imprints from their social environment.
Pupils from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds have only limited contact with people from other backgrounds and thus with other habitual practices, including in the socially segregated schools they attend. As a result of growing up in precarious family relationships, which are characterized by constant scarcity in daily life, they tend to follow a habitual pattern in which short-term, function and benefit orientation predominate. This is contrary to the logic of institutional education, which is geared towards longer-term and future-oriented investments and efforts. In this sense, school is, so to speak, the distribution point for future opportunities in the present.
In addition, children from deprived backgrounds often live in resigned and hopeless milieus. The restriction of the world of experience, especially of adolescents and children, due to the lack of representation of social roles that make up a ’normal‘ life, also has an impact on attitudes towards education and school. It is clear that these children often develop a feeling of being second class and that efforts in school for a better future seem unrealistic to them. In their parents' homes, they tend to find negative role models, and they mostly do not receive any positive support in overcoming their situation through educational efforts. Under these circumstances, they are unlikely to develop positive attitudes towards school and learning. This could also be the cause of the teaching disruptions, irregular school attendance, and refusal to study and school, which are often mentioned in teacher surveys.
What to do ?: To understand students' habitual practices and expectations, teachers must have the means to decode their habitus patterns. Teachers not only have to be challenged for this decoding work and for self-reflection; they must also have the opportunity to do so. Time is required that teachers hardly have left. The opportunities to escape the routines of everyday school life are limited. Habitus reflection must also be created as a permanent process; it cannot be done in one fell swoop. In addition to time, support in the context of teacher training is also important.
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