Why does phosphorus have two melting points
|Self-heating of the white phosphor|
| White phosphorus reacts with the oxygen in the air and forms a white smoke.|
In the process, it heats up and melts. Auto-ignition can now occur at any time!
P4 + 5 O2 P4O10 ΔHR. = −2995 kJ / mol
When white phosphorus is heated in an alkaline environment, the highly toxic hydrogen phosphide PH is generated3 and phosphinic acid H3PO2. If you heat white phosphorus to over 450 ° C for a long time, you get it, depending on the conditions red phosphorus and at the same time also purple phosphorus. The red, amorphous phosphorus sublimes about 30 ° C lower than the purple, crystalline phosphorus. Red phosphorus is chemically more stable than white phosphorus, it only ignites above 300 ° C and burns to phosphorus pentoxide with the formation of white smoke.
|Red phosphorus burns|
|Red phosphorus burns in the air, producing a white smoke.|
|Heat red phosphorus in the absence of air|
|White or yellow phosphorus forms in the absence of air.|
If you expose the white phosphorus to high temperatures and high pressure of up to 12,000 bar, you get black phosphorus. Another manufacturing option would be the addition of finely divided mercury and heating to 380 ° C. If you then add black phosphorus seed crystals to the melt, the black phosphorus is created even without the high pressure. This modification forms gray-black glossy, rhombic crystals that have good thermal and electrical conductivity. It is also suitable as a semiconductor material. In the case of black phosphorus, the atoms are called P.6- Rings arranged in a chair shape, with each phosphorus atom having three neighboring atoms. In addition to the modifications mentioned, one also knows the fibrous phosphorus, which is formed when gaseous phosphorus cools slowly at 500 to 600 ° C. The thin fibers are often fused with platelets of purple phosphorus.
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