What is fake fruit
The fruit is defined as flower in the state of seed maturity. Other organs besides the ovary can also be included. such as the calyx, the stamens, etc. The varied design of the fruits is based on the different development of the carpels surrounding the seeds. They form the pericardium, the pericardium. The pericardium consists of exocarp (= outer shell of the ovary and endocarp (inner layer. In between lies the mesocarp Pericarp (Pericarp) emerges from the wall of the ovary and has characteristic attachment points (placentas) for the seeds.
The Pappus corresponds to a reshaped calyx and mostly formed as a wreath of hair, less often as a skin fringe, cup-shaped, scaly or barbed, awny, bristly or feathery.
According to the position of the ovary (above, below), the differentiation of the pericarp, the type of seed release or whether the fruit is individually or in groups from the mother plant, a classification that is not always satisfactory should be made.
Individual fruits arise from a single ovary. A distinction is made between closing fruits, scattered fruits and decay fruits. In the case of collective crops and / or fruit stands, there are several at the same time in the form of associations.
Type of seed release or distribution
A - closing fruits - Nuts, nuts, caryopses, achenes, berries, stone fruit.
B - scattered fruits - Follicles, pods, capsules, pods, pods).
C - decay fruits - The fruits are multiple. The mostly solitary partial fruits remain closed (split fruits, broken fruits).
D - collective crops - Flowers with choricarpic gynoeceum, which merge into a distribution unit through axial tissue or through subsequent growth or gluing.
E - fruit associations - come about because whole inflorescences grow together to form a distribution unit.
They fall off closed and do not open even after maturity!
|A - closing fruits|
|nut||Pericarp dry (woody, leathery, or membranous); all 3 pericardial layers (exo-, meso-, endocarp) lignify to form a hard shell. Pre-leaves can form a fruit capsule (cupula). Caryopses and achenes are special forms. |
Examples: Hazelnut, peanut, elm, valerian - see sketch: wing nut.
|Nuts|| In a choricarpic gynoeceum, the closing fruits are called nuts. |
Example - Ranunculus lanuginosus - Caltha palustris -
|Caryopsis||The pericarp is so intimately fused with the seed that they can no longer be separated. See sketch - Triticum aestivum. The ovary is always on top (Poaceae). |
|Achene||As with the caryopsis, the seed is also fused with the pericarp. The ovary is here but below (Asteraceae). In the umbelliferae they are known as double achenes because the fruit breaks down into 2 partial fruits. |
Examples:Taraxacum - Valeriana - ...
|berry||The pericarp is fleshy even after ripening (it rarely dries up during ripening) - mostly multi-seeded. The citrus fruits are a special form of the berry. |
Examples: Tomato, aubergine, paprika, pumpkin, banana, gooseberry, cucumber - cloudberry - grape, melon, dates, avocado, kiwi, "nutmeg" - bearberry - solanum - daphne - cape gooseberry - ...
|Citrus fruits||Citrus fruits are a special form of berries. It is not the pericarp itself that is fleshy and juicy. The juicy portion comes about through invaginations of the endocarp, which encloses juice sacs and invades into the fruit compartments. These sap sacs fill the fruit hollows and enclose the centrally angled seeds. The - citrus fruit - itself consists of several carpels. These are only separated by a little mesocarp. The actual peel consists of the meso and exocarp and is differently difficult to separate from the endocarp (lemons are difficult to peel, mandarins are easy to peel).|
|Stone fruit||The pericarp is divided into a rock-hard inner layer (stone core) and a juicy or at least fleshy outer layer. |
Examples: Coconut, almonds, sour cherry, bird cherry, bird cherry, blackthorn, plum, apricot, peach, sea buckthorn, elderberry, mango, olive
The pericarp opens after ripening and releases the seeds!
The fruits are multi-faceted.
The mostly lonely partial fruits remain closed!
|C - decay fruits|
|Fissure fruit|| These fruits disintegrate when ripe Splitting real partitions lengthways into several partial fruits, each wall of which corresponds to a whole carpel. Often a stem-like fruit holder (karyophore) remains. |
Example: Caraway - Maple - Glass pods - Geranium -
|Broken fruit||The fruits disintegrate when ripe Splitting false partitions into several partial fruits, the wall of which corresponds to only parts of one or more carpels. The fruit parts are always lonely and remain closed. This subheading includes pods, pods and the fruit of the Klausen.|
|Link sleeve||This broken fruit is formed from just one carpel and breaks down into individual limbs. |
Examples: Horseshoe clover, crown vetch, alpine sweet clover
|Limb pod||This broken fruit consists of 2 or 4 carpels and disintegrates into 2 unequal members - e.g .: Raphanus (coenocarpic broken fruit)|
|Klaus fruit|| This broken fruit disintegrates lengthways by splitting real and false partitions. The partial fruits arise from 1 ovary and correspond to a multiple of the number of carpels. |
Flowers with choricarpen gynoeceum,
those through axle tissue or through subsequent growth or gluing
merge into one distribution unit!
|D - collective crops|
|Aggregate drupes||The individual fruits correspond to stone fruits. |
Examples:Raspberry - blackberry
|Pelvic fruits||Since the follicles consist of apocarpic carpels, they would have to open at the fusion seams when they ripen. In the case of the apple fruit as a special form of the follicles, however, these are enclosed by the fleshy base of the flower and consequently hindered from opening. |
Examples: Apple, pear, quince, rowanberry
|Common nuts||The individual fruits correspond to nut fruits. The individual fruits of the strawberry lie on a fleshy raised flower base. With the rose, the nuts are accordingly in an axis cup (rose hip).|
Examples:Strawberry - rose hip.
|Apple fruits||The apple fruit is a special form of the pelvic fruit. Here the follicles are enclosed by the fleshy flower base and consequently hindered from opening. According to another view, the apple tissue should consist purely of the flower base, while the inner part of the fruit should be part of the fleshy mesocarp. The individual fruits are completely connected to the axle cup.|
Whole fruit clusters combine to form a single-fruit-like spreading unit.
They do not emerge from individual flowers, but from whole inflorescences!
|E - infructescence|
|Fruit bandage||The fruits of the individual flowers are held together by the flower axis. |
The double berry of the Alpine hedge cherry is formed from 2 ovaries of two flowers. With the burdock, the whole head is spread with the barbed bracts.
|Berry bandage||In the pineapple berry association, not only are the individual berries juicy, but also the bracts between the fruits.|
|Stone fruit dressing||The fig is an example of a stone fruit association.|
|Nut fruit dressing||The linden tree corresponds to a nut fruit association. |
The double berry of the alpine hedge cherry is formed from 2 ovaries of two flowers. With the burdock, the whole head with the barbed bracts is spread.
The cob could be seen as a caryopsis bandage. However, it is a product of thousands of years of selection. In the (unknown) wild form, the grains are likely to have loosened individually.
Flora Gastein - terminology: fruit types
& COPY; 2002 Anton Ernst Lafenthaler
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