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Booklet - Mute Card Generator

The concept of the MERIDIANE textbook series In the current GW curriculum for the AHS upper level, the educational and teaching task clearly states: Geography and economics lessons should make motives and effects, regularities and problems of human action visible in the interwoven areas of action “space, society and economy” and make it understandable from the point of view of political education. The subject lessons should feel increasingly committed to the following values: a humane society, an intact environment and sustainable economy. In addition, the geography and economics lessons should provide the students with those qualifications that give them a largely self-determined choice from the diverse educational and professional offerings Discussions with countless GW teachers in recent years made it clear that when the curriculum was being implemented in daily lessons, it was all too often feared that, in view of the inadequate allocation of hours and also the absence of hours (due to several hours of school work , Theater performances, lectures by people who are not in school ...) so-called “basic knowledge” could not be clearly consolidated in the school hours and it would often be confused with peripheral topics. The desire for a book with a clear structure according to basic material and appropriate additional chapters was therefore quite clear. This need was also expressed on the part of the pupils. Revision of MERIDIANE with regard to the new Matura In order to prepare even more specifically for the new Matura, meridians were revised: • Supplement with "Matura chapters": Explanation of the required competencies, explanation of the requirement areas and their operators, Matura assignments as examples, introduction to writing a pre-academic paper (6th and 7th grade) • Supplement to the method chapters • Conversion of work assignments to the use of operators • Insertion of new assignments and materials, which are especially used as a basis for scientific work MERIDIANE is now trying to use a 4-step concept to make it easier to achieve the learning objectives than was previously possible. By clearly subdividing into basic chapters (basic knowledge) and subject pages (case studies), learning objectives can be achieved more easily and individual areas can be deepened and supplemented as required . The basic knowledge already enables the fulfillment of all learning objectives. A large number of case studies on the individual learning objectives make a targeted selection possible. Sufficient material is provided for group work, student presentations and interactive work. The choice of topics was based on the author's and the authors' GW lessons and was tailored to the interests of the students. The GW teachers, of course, have the freedom to work on the subject inductively (based on the case studies) or deductively (from the basic chapter The valid GW curriculum is already based on the competencies. This names three methodological and three-fold specific competencies. The “new Matura” from 2014 will place great emphasis on reviewing the various competencies. MERIDIANE is particularly accommodating to this mandate: On the method pages, individual topics of a general and subject-specific nature can be worked on particularly intensively. As a relief for teachers, all chapters in this Booklet Corresponding references to the six competencies added. Questions and tasks that promote the networked thinking and discussion of the students help to increase and secure their competence in GW. Particular importance is attached to the constant connection to the school atlas! The modern layout with corresponding image and graphic design is intended to encourage the students to deal with the various topics. MERIDIANE basically tries to offer enough material for the students to do their own work so that a secure geographic and economic basic knowledge can arise from the development. The formal structure with the division into basic chapters and topic pages (with additional method pages) was deliberately chosen so that this goal can be easily achieved. The numerous tables are also used for evaluation. The focus is on the possibility of learning for the pupils, especially since the latest possible topicality of the numbers in a school book is not always possible. A wide variety of cartographic means of expression are also included in the book for evaluation: Thematic cards, Diagrams, cartograms and sketches complete the cards in the atlas. The same purpose should be fulfilled by the schemes and the many color pictures, which should also challenge the teacher's assignments. The tasks are always at the end of a topic or a chapter and are assigned to specific text blocks. Of course, not all tasks have to be worked on: the big one The offer should allow the teacher more choice, but also group work on different learning goals. The book offers a lot more material than can or can be dealt with. The teachers (and also the students) have the opportunity to choose. The learning objectives are always binding, but not the learning content. Additional accompanying materials (worksheets, PPPs for download, silent cards, Game templates ...), especially for the “new school leaving exam”, can be found on the publisher's homepage at http: //meridiane.hoelzel.at3


Extract from the new upper level curriculum The entire curriculum with the very important educational and teaching tasks as well as the no less essential didactic principles can be found at www.bmukk.gv.at/medienpool/11858/lp_neu_ahs_06.pdf. You will only find the GWK curriculum below the area “Curriculum for 5th and 6th grade”. As a result of the school's autonomy, it is also possible to deal with the topics planned for the 5th and 6th grade in a three-hour subject either only in the 5th or only to be developed in the 6th grade. The “normal case” would be to deal with the subject area “The socially, economically and ecologically limited world” in the 5th grade and the subject area “Diversity and Unity - The New Europe” in the 6th grade. Get to know and critically evaluate their providers, instruments and functionality - recognize and analyze regional disparities in selected states and supranational structures as well as grasp the significance of regional policy for dismantling them - Comparison of regional development paths - using selected examples, the changes in space, economy and society after accession to the European Union - to understand the importance of cross-border cooperation for spatial development4


In addition to these general educational tasks, lessons in geography and economics aim at three methodological and three subject-specific competencies, to which special teaching tasks are assigned. Orientation towards these competencies is of particular importance in the context of the “new Matura”. Methodological competence - Gaining, analyzing and target group-oriented use and evaluation of topographical and thematic information using proven and computer-aided methods cardsCritically examine the consumer and recognize the economic significance of consumer behavior - motivation to deal personally with local, regional and global issues - acquire the qualifications to actively participate in the development of the "New Europe" Economic competence - understanding of fundamental relationships in business, economic and global economic areas as well Knowledge of macroeconomic laws, structures and problems - Recognizing economic policy as an essential part of politics, being able to assess their models and their real implementation in different systems - Acquiring basic knowledge and concrete insights into internal operations - Insight into changes in production processes and understanding of changes in the world of work Under the influence of growing technology and globalization - arouse interest in working in the self-employed sector5


The learning objectives are binding, but not the learning content. With MERIDIANE, all learning goals can be achieved with the help of the basic chapters without having to deal with the numerous topics. Individual topics should also be selected if there is a lack of time, whereby different groups could also work on different topics. The following annual plan is only a suggestion - the learning content should be entered by the GW specialist! Annual plan for schools with the following hour weighting: 5. Class 2 weekly hours GWK5. ) and explain the underlying political interests - understanding how natural events affect differently due to the social and economic structure 1st, 2nd, 3rd world; Continents, cultural areasBoundaries of natural spaces, languages ​​and religionsGreat landscapes, potential usesClimate zones, particularities of the climateDistribution, structures, development of the world population TIPS by the author Especially in the subject of geography and economics, teachers are constantly faced with the challenge of being able to offer the students the most up-to-date data. A school book cannot keep up with the updating possibilities that are offered in the age of the Internet. At this point, however, we would like to offer you a list including some notes on usage that you can use to update the data. In addition, we have compiled a list of generally very useful websites that give you information and a good basis for an up-to-date and interesting one Can offer lessons. The list is organized by subject. Many websites only offer their information in English or, for example, French. You can find relevant information in the list.General StatisticsWorldbankwww.worldbank.org (English, French) The World Bank website offers text material on specific topics as well as photos and video recordings (e.g. on the Millennium Development Goals). Statistics can also be found under the heading “Data”, both by country and by topic. Under “Indicators” you can select various topics and use them to create a map or a diagram. The data can be downloaded as an Excel file. 6


UNOhttp: //unstats.un.org/unsd/default.htm (English) CIA Worldfactbookwww.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook (only in English) UNDP - United NationsDevelopment Programmhttp: // hdr. undp.org/en(English, French ...) OECDwww.oecd.org (English, French) Food and AgricultureOrganization of theUnited Nationswww.fao.org (English, French, Spanish) Statistics Austriawww.statistik.atWirtschaftskammerÖsterreichwww.wko.at / statisticsThe site offers statistics on the Millennium Development Goals, economic indicators, demographic and social indicators, etc. The “Demographic Yearbook” is available for free download. The CIA Worldfactbook offers statistics sorted by country (Select a country). Under the heading "References", some statistics are also offered in a country comparison. If you click on the small field next to the data in a country profile, a comparison with other countries is also shown. The data can be downloaded. On this page you can find data on the population in global comparison (“Indicators” or “Countries”), the Human Development Report is available for download and you can compile your “own” development index (“Build yourown index "). Data, especially on the economy, can be found sorted by country under" Countries ". Statistics on certain topics can be found under the heading “Topics”. The data can be downloaded as a PDF or in an Excel sheet. Under "Statistics" you can also find data for further processing in alphabetical order. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations offers statistics sorted by topic and country. If you click on "Statistics", a further selection is offered: Under "Aquastat" you can find information on the subject of "Water" (country profiles, water use, water resources, maps and tables ...), under "FAOSTAT" you get statistics sorted by country and individual products, e.g. on agricultural production, trade, fishing industry ... All data can be downloaded as an Excel sheet, the displayed diagrams can also be downloaded. Statistics Austria offers statistical material by subject area on the website of Statistics Austria The latest publications appear on the homepage with a short explanatory text. Most of the data can be downloaded as a PDF or as an Excel spreadsheet. Under the heading "Publications & Services" you will find various publications such as the Statistical Yearbook, but also, for example, the interactive regional or economic atlas Austria. The questionnaires for the microcensus can be downloaded from the “Questionnaires” section (under “Surveys A – Z” Microcensus). The Chamber of Commerce offers summary statistics on various topics for Austria at the federal state level as well as for Austria in an EU comparison (international data Austria in the EU This website also offers EU country profiles. Under the heading “STATISTICS from A to Z” you can find an overview of all subject areas. Some long-term series are also available. Under the heading "Data offer Austria" there are also economic graphs for download (data offer Austria economic graphs). In addition, the “Statistical Yearbook” on Austria can be downloaded, sorted by chapters. Earth HabitatClimate Diagrams www.klimadiagramme.dewww.climatediagrams.com (English) NASAhttp: //earthobservatory.nasa.gov (English) U.S. National Park Hawaii www.nps.gov/havo/index.htm (English) Both sides offer a large selection of climate diagrams sorted by region. The database is, however, a bit out of date. The English site also offers a selection of climate diagrams, but the database is unknown. For training purposes in interpreting the climate diagrams, however, both websites can be used. NASA's Earth Observatory offers satellite images and cards on various topics, e.g. also on global climate change. See also http: //climate.nasa.gov. On the homepage you will find several categories, such as "Global Maps". If you click on this, you get another selection. To the cards an animation is made available that shows the chronological sequence of the topic (e.g. on temperatures, rainfall, ice cover ...). Under “Natural Hazards” you will find satellite images of natural hazards. If you click on “Image of the Day”, you will receive an archive with satellite images since 1999, also sorted by subject. The images can all be downloaded in very high resolution. Tip: The satellite images can be used, for example, for topographical exercises or to prepare for various presentations. Various information about the volcanoes in Hawaii can be found on this page. In the menu item "Photos & Multimedia" you can find one image material and also videos.7


Outline of the earthWorldmapperwww.worldmapper.org (English) Ecological footprintwww.footprintnetwork.org (English, German ...) Gapminderwww.gapminder.org (English) The site offers a comprehensive cardsmaterial that is particularly suitable for group work on the topic of “global inequalities”. They can cards can be used alone, but so-called “PDF posters” are also offered, which can be used for interdisciplinary lessons with English. This page offers very detailed information on the ecological footprint. Information on the global footprint and individual regions is provided; the personal footprint can be calculated. Gapminders are interactive cards and diagrams for a wide variety of statistics: From A for "Adults with HIV" to Y for "Yearly CO2 emissions" (to be found under the menu item "Data"). The data can be downloaded in an Excel sheet.In addition, various video films or Powerpoint presentations are available for download, which can serve as an introduction to a topic. Population and SocietyDeutsche StiftungWeltbevammlungwww.weltbevoelkerung.deU.S. Census Bureauhttp: //www.census.gov/population/international/data/idb/informationGateway.php (English) United NationsPopulation Fundwww.unfpa.org (English, French ...) UNHCR (UN Commissioner for Refugees) www.unhcr. atwww.unhcr.orgSocial reports and other information about Austria www.bmsk.gv.at On this page you will find various materials on the world population in German for download or to order (poster, world population report ...) "Publications". The DSW data report, in which the most important demographic states for all states can be ordered or downloaded as a PDF file (also to be found under “Publications”). Under the heading "Teachers & Students" you will find teaching materials. The materials are generally very suitable as a starting point for various presentations that students can prepare themselves. Here you can find population pyramids and the associated data by years between 1950 and 2050 (but not for all states and for all years). The site is very suitable as a practice opportunity for the students. This site offers information on the world population and on certain demographic and social topics (e.g. human rights, health ...) and is very suitable for interdisciplinary lessons with English and for preparing presentations . Images and videos are also offered, which can also be downloaded. The UN Refugee Agency offers school materials (“School Materials” section), but you can also find statistical material (“Statistics” section) and country information. For a detailed search for statistics, however, the English site is recommended, where for example the statistical yearbook can be downloaded (“Resources” Statistics section). Photos and videos are available in the “Multimedia” section (both on the German and English websites). The social report from Austria is available for download on the website of the Federal Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection. This website also provides information on the Red-White-Red Card and other topics such as minimum income or labor law. The social reports of the individual federal states are offered on their official websites. Industry International Labor Organization www.ilo.org (English, German ...) Green Report Austria www.gruenerbericht.at Conflicts of useOPECwww.opec.org (English) International EnergyAgencywww.iea.org (English) Statistical Review ofWorld Energy Reportwww.bp.com (English) This page provides information on various "topics" (eg child labor, green jobs, equality and discrimination, labor migration, youth employment ...). Various statistics can be compiled under “Statistics and databases” and downloaded as an Excel table (by topic, by country, by publication). The so-called “Green Report” presents the situation in agriculture and forestry in Austria. The entire report can be downloaded as a PDF document from the website. OPEC provides statistics on all aspects of oil under the heading “Data / Graphs”. The monthly and annual reports and the “World Oil Outlook” can be downloaded under “Publications”. The International Energy Agency offers information sorted by topic (e.g. oil, coal, climate change, electricity, energy policy, renewable energies ...) and by country.BP offers some statistics on various energy sources such as oil and gas, but also on wind and nuclear energy, for example. Not only current figures are offered, but also general data from the 1960s - if available. 8


CHAPTER 1: DEINWEGZURM AT UR A The aim of this introduction is to give the students an overview of the possibilities of how you can include the FachGWK in your Matura, which competencies are required and how a Matura task could look exemplary. from page 4 The competencies should be developed over the entire teaching time. "Since the ability to study is one of the elementary goals of the AHS and sustainability and competence orientation form the basis for lifelong learning, it must be in the interests of each individual school to ensure that its pupils as much as possible To prepare for the writing of the pre-scientific work, ie to ensure continuous development of competencies in all subjects, especially in the area of ​​learning and work techniques, throughout the entire school career. "(Source:" Pre-scientific work ". A handout G. Standardized, competence-oriented matriculation test at AHS, school year 2013/14, p. 21, Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture) Basics and materials: • The regulation for the new matriculation examination can be found on the website of the Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture at www.bmukk. gv.at/schulen/recht/erk/vo_rp_ahs.xml.• You can find the guidelines for the oral high school diploma in GWK at www.bmukk.gv.at/schulen/unterricht/ba/reifepruefung_flf.xmldownloaden.• The handout for the oral high school diploma is can also be downloaded from the website of the Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture at http://www.bmukk.gv.at/medienpool/22837/reifepruefung_ahs_mrp.pdf. Pre-scientific work ", including the assessment criteria, various templates for download, information on further training opportunities, etc. The requirement areas and their operators, from page 6 The requirement areas are in the book explained at "student level", but it will be necessary to discuss these together. The two tasks are expediently worked out in groups or together with the teacher. The aim is to give the students an initial insight into the various requirements and to make them aware of them so that over time they will be able to independently assess the requirements of tasks. The requirement areas are explained in detail below Requirement area I (reproduction) Requirement area II (reorganization and transfer) Requirement area III (reflection and problem solving) This area essentially covers the part of pure reproduction. It is about reproducing and describing subject-specific content (including specialist knowledge learned by heart or content worked out from representations) on a delimited subject area. Appropriate working techniques and methods should be used for this. This also includes the development of a certain specialist vocabulary and the "first steps" in processing Information from different materials. This area is about the independent explanation, processing and ordering of subject-specific content (= reorganization) as well as the appropriate linking and classification of learned content and methods to other facts (= transfer) Type of analysis or evaluation, ie a distinction should be made between factual information and evaluative information. Problems, methods used and knowledge gained (reflection) require independent justifications, conclusions, interpretations, evaluations and options for action (problem solving). In this area, communication and discussion skills and independent opinion formation play a special role. On the one hand, it is about reflecting on factual information and evaluative information, on the other hand, it is also about reflecting on one's own judgment. Note on the spiral of requirement areas and their operators The operators assigned to the requirement areas are generally known. You can also find an overview of this in the guidelines for the oral school leaving examination in GWK. It is important, however, that such an allocation is always subject to subjective assumptions. As explained in the book, some operators can be assigned to several requirement areas, depending on the background of the task. Those operators for which this tends to be the case have been placed in the spiral in the colored transition areas. The spiral of requirements can be found in the appendix as a template


The operators in detail The students should try to create tasks for the individual operators themselves. This task can be simplified with appropriate examples. You can use the following overviews as a master copy. Another possibility is to let the students leaf through the book and look for corresponding tasks. Requirement area IOoperators Intention of the operators (name) examples Work out / determine describe / characterize summarize enter list or enumerate without any explanation / without knowledge; reproduce learned facts; read out information from provided materials recognize, extract or reproduce information or facts from the given material under certain points of view Ability to extract and describe essential information or information required in the task from a given material being able to summarize essential information or information required in the task from a given material, i.e. to Reduce the essentials and present them in a structured way Allocate a fact or concept to certain situations or a room Add information in a diagram, map, sketch etc. and label them Name forms of unemployment. Read the excerpts from an interview with an organic farmer through and work out your arguments “pro organic agriculture”. Characterize the economic systems based on their forms of ownership and their social orientation economic changes and their effects on tourism using the information in the chapter "Tourism in Austria". List the types of unemployment in the following examples ... Enter the cities marked with numbers in the Fig. 1. Enter the names of the phases of a business cycle in the sketch. Other operators that fall into this requirement area are, for example, determine, label, sketch, describe, show, reproduce, enumerate, localize, expound, define, explain.Requirement area IIOperators Intention of operators Analyze / interpret, explain, compare, evaluate, classify / assign, create / present, explain, explain, 10 Examine and evaluate materials and facts systematically and in a targeted manner Combine results into a final overall statement Put several pieces of information in a well-founded context Present facts appropriately in terms of content and method using graphics and technical language Label terms (e.g. flowchart, diagram, mind map, structure of effects) Develop complex basic ideas argumentatively and present them in context Describe facts in context and explain them clearly with examples or evidence Analyze the trends of the future in retail and their reasons based on the chapter "Online retail and the trends of the future ". Explain the importance of Austria's external economic integration for Austria's foreign trade. Compare the Lesach Valley and the Gastein Valley on the basis of the following characteristics: natural potential / natural location advantages, acquired location factors, population development and tourist infrastructure. Evaluate the statistics in the chapter" Migration to and in Austria "with regard to migration movements Assign current economic policy measures to the two theories of Keynes and Friedman. Present a business cycle graphically. Complete the sketch with information on the individual phases n andExplanations on the development of the labor market. Justify the developments in unemployment in the theory of a business cycle. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of Austria as a business location using the statistics in the chapter "Austria as a business location". Other operators that fall into this requirement area are, for example, examine, prove, characterize, contrast, refute, work out, structure, transfer, apply, calculate.


Requirement area III Operators Intention of the operators Examples evaluate evaluating / discussing discussing interpreting designing criticizing forming / checking hypotheses Statements, allegations, opinions, assessments, suggestions or measures in the context of their validity or appropriateness check and the specialist knowledge used or the methods used openly present assessments assessing statements, allegations, opinions, assessing suggestions or measures based on one's own , submit a personal statement and disclose one's own benchmarks to make a reasoned judgment on a given problem by weighing up arguments for and against methodically process the material provided on certain issues and submit a reasoned statement based on an analysis, explanation and evaluation role or addressee-oriented with a problem by drafting speeches, disputes, strategies, B Discuss consultation sketches, scenarios or models Critically question the material provided and present and discuss both your own opinion and possible opinions of others Developing solutions, considering future developments or making assumptions on the basis of your own knowledge and information provided, or checking these proposed solutions and considerations. Assess whether the Marchfeld Canal System makes sense the climatic conditions in Marchfeld using Figure 1 in the book on page 43.Discuss and evaluate possible social and family policy measures that would be conceivable in order to counter the challenges that arise in connection with the future demographic development of Austria. The government is currently discussing necessary austerity measures, to rehabilitate the budget. Discuss the arguments for or against the following measures: Increase the retirement age salters, introduction of a "wealthy tax" ... Interpret the population pyramids of Austria from 1900 and 2010 in relation to the structure of the population and the changes in population development. Design / write a speech on the topic of "Cuts for young people as part of the new austerity package", which you will bring forward at the “In the center” discussion. Write a critical statement on the subject of asylum policy in Austria by including the materials in the chapter “Asylum in Austria”. Also take a personal position. Make a hypothesis about the leisure time behavior of your classmates and create a questionnaire on the basis of this. Other operators that fall into this requirement area are, for example, taking a position, designing, developing, (reviewing), formulating, writing, reflecting Areas of requirement explained using the example of a high school diploma task, from page 7 This task on the oral high school diploma serves to illustrate the requirement areas. Furthermore, it should be noted that a task in requirement area III only really fulfills this requirement if it has not already been discussed in advance. Example: During the lesson, possible hypotheses for the introduction of socio-political measures with regard to the future population development in Austria were discussed. If you ask a question in this regard at the Matura and the student does not give any further thoughts on it, it is "only" a matter of simply reproducing what has already been learned, which does not meet requirement area III. § 29 RPVO: (1) As part of the oral sub-examination, each candidate must be presented in writing with a competency-oriented task in the selected subject area, which can be divided into independent tasks with requirements in the areas of reproduction and transfer performance as well as reflection and problem solving.At the same time as the task, any aids required to process the tasks must be submitted. § 29 RPVO states that the tasks must have a competence-oriented character, and this competence orientation certainly represents the actual innovation leap in the context of the oral maturity examination. • For each subject area, more as an examination candidate, at least two tasks with an equivalent level of aspiration are formulated. It is quite possible that the same task occurs more than once in the course of the examination. • For the details of the tasks, reference is made to the recommendations of the specialist working groups. • In any case, the subject areas must be learning goal-oriented and the tasks must be competence-oriented.11


• Competence-oriented means that each task contains the following requirement areas: a) a reproduction service (reproducing and presenting subject-specific facts, determining the type of material, extracting information from material, using specialist terminology, applying work techniques, etc.) and b) a transfer service (explaining relationships, linking facts and classify, analyze materials, distinguish between factual and value judgments) c) as well as a performance in the area of ​​reflection and problem solving (discussing facts and problems, developing hypotheses, reflecting on your own judgment) the assessment of independence, methodological competence, etc. • When setting the task, it must be ensured that it includes essential aspects and does not cover the entire subject area The appointment must also ensure that the candidate can make good use of the minimum time of ten minutes and maximum time of 20 minutes and can demonstrate the various skills. As a rule, the examination will (must) take up as much time as is necessary to obtain a reliable assessment. The maximum time of 20 minutes is intended more for the examinations in subjects where a test of practical skills is intended. Source: Oral maturity examination. A handout. Standardized, competence-oriented school leaving examination at AHS, school year 2013/14, Federal Ministry for Education, Art and Culture, October 2012 When preparing Matura assignments, the teacher should consider a certain expectation horizon in advance in order to be able to determine criteria for the assessment. For the example task, the expectation horizon could look like this. Expectation horizon1. a) The pupil can explain the term comprehensively, gives examples of the individual forms (voluntary / forced migration, internal / external migration, etc.) and names sciences that deal with this topic and their background for this analysis The pupil gives examples of push and pull factors (unemployment, poverty, political persecution ...) and explains them in exemplary contexts. c) Ad. Fig. 1: The pupil uses Fig. 1 to explain the significance of the transfer of money that the migrants have earned abroad and are sending back to their home countries. Consequences for the target countries: Money that is earned in the country does not flow back into one's own economy. Consequences for the home countries: Money that flows back benefits the economy, the families can improve their quality of life, the economy can thus be further built ... Ad. Text 1: Text 1 is used to address the problematic situation of people emigrating from a higher educational level. Education in your own country, high financial expenses, but the economic benefit takes place in another country. Ad. Differentiation between industrialized and developing countries: in both materials developing countries are named as emigration countries, both times money is earned abroad, in the case of remittances, part flows back again, in the case of medical staff there is investment in people's education made in their own country no economic (or social) "compensation". Industrialized countries are affected by the outflow of these "remittances", but the question must be asked what proportion these remittances take in the overall economic performance. In the case of medical staff, industrialized countries would benefit (training in other countries, but economic and social benefits in their own country). 3. d) Ad. Dubai: When answering, the pupil differentiates between migrants from the upper and lower classes and names their importance for the city (migrants on the one hand as unskilled workers, construction workers ..., on the other hand, highly qualified and financially strong migrants who bring money into the country and thus strengthen the economy). Figure 2 shows construction workers in front of the newly built high-rise buildings in Dubai. Without the labor of these migrants, the rapid development of this city would be ws. not been possible. Ad. Lagos: The pupil describes, using Fig. 3, among other things, the economic challenges facing the city of Lagos due to immigration (providing the migrants with infrastructure - in the picture the example of the transport infrastructure - lack of work, informal work ... resulting problems) .e) The pupil names challenges in developing countries (e.g. expansion of infrastructure, creation of living space ...) compared to those in industrialized countries (e.g. question of integration in urban planning, creation of living space, expansion of infrastructure ...) and explains the different approaches that are required for urban planning. 4. f) The pupil gives his / her personal opinion on the importance of a migration policy in general (why necessary / why maybe not, where necessary / where not ...) and then specifically goes into text 2 and comments on it. With regard to text 2, the pupil should also ask how sensibly such measures could be implemented in a developing country at all


K A P I T E L 2: E I N E E R D E - V I E L E W E LT E N Competencies: The following competencies are particularly required in this chapter: Methodological competence: Working with various atlas maps (both topographical and thematic cards Europe, but also space images) should provide a basis for developing this chapter. Orientation competence: This "introductory chapter" is particularly suitable for developing a "topographical grid for spatial information" with the students Global inequalities are discussed, which increases the ability to “critically assess the political, economic and social information about Austria, Europe and the world that is disseminated by the mass media.” Possibilities for classifying the earth, from page 8 General information: On the one hand, this chapter deals with a repetition of elementary knowledge, on the other hand the contents of the two learning objectives are already taken into account. A European focus with a political division of states (reduced to the ten largest states in terms of area and population - this division can of course be extended to a higher number, see the copy template with the states of the world!) And the apparent security of natural geographic factors are primarily discussed. Tasks 1 to 4 on page 9 are used for topographical protection. On the tasks, page 9Objections of the earth 1. Here you can refer to Fig. 1 (page 24) if the question is only to be understood as the seven continents (continents, 1st grade HS / AHS = 5th grade!): Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia , North America, South America, Antarctica. Europe and Asia could be combined into Eurasia, North and South America into America. A more precise definition of the term “continent” can be found in the book on page 24.2. What is important is the representation of the Pacific Ocean, the question of what parts of the world are represented in each cardsmiddle and the different ideas about what is in the east and west of the respective continent or state. For Austrians, the USA is in the west, for Japanese and the inhabitants of Eastern Siberia in the east, for Brazilians in the north. One should compare the perception of the different continents on the world maps: an Austrian looks to the top left when the state USA is mentioned on the map, a Japanese person looks to the top right. Other examples should be used here (Australia and South America from the USA; South Asia from North America and Europe; South America from Europe and Australia…). 3. Countries with the largest area in the order Russia = 1, Canada = 2, USA = 3, China = 4, Brazil = 5, Australia = 6, India = 7, Argentina = 8, Kazakhstan = 9, Sudan = 10.4. Most populous countries in the order China = A, India = B, USA = C, Indonesia = D, Brazil = E, Pakistan = F, Bangladesh = G, Nigeria = H, Russia = I, Japan = J.5. Own considerations. The aim of the question is to question the different structuring options, particularly with regard to the often ambiguous, clear or generally applicable structure. The advantages of structuring are, for example, that you get an overview of a certain topic, a state, a region, a room, etc. or that you are made aware of a selected issue (e.g. poverty in developing countries). The disadvantage can be the unreliability of basic data or the fact that outlines can also be misused. In addition, a worldview may be generated that can be shaped by prejudice. Is on cards Abandoned ?, from page 10 General information: This section addresses the issue of threshold values ​​because they are usually not recognized correctly by the students. On the tasks, page 11 Reliability of cards1. The fundamental difference: the climate map in the book only shows the major climate zones; the map in the atlas differentiates further climate types within the major climate zones. The climate map in the book pretends that Greece and the heart of the Sahara are in the same climate zone. A comparison with the climate map in the atlas shows that there are two different types of climate, especially with regard to precipitation. For the cool temperate zone, comparisons in the USA and Europe (Ireland on the one hand, the Gobi Desert on the other, etc.) are useful. The comparison must of course refer to the atlas map used in the class. The main focus should be placed on the savannah, steppe, cool temperate and cold temperate climates. 13


Generalization is necessary! 2. Fig. 4 shows the major language groups in Europe. All associated languages ​​are summarized under “Germanic”: German, English, Swedish, Dutch ... Fig. 5, on the other hand, is further differentiated. When asked about the predominant language in Vorarlberg, for example, the viewers in Fig. 4 indicated “Germanic”, while those in Fig. 5 indicated “Alemannic” .3. Scale 1: 80,000,000: without the not constantly flowing water, three rivers are entered; two registered places. Scale 1: 25,000,000: without the not constantly flowing water, over 20 rivers are entered; Over 80 registered places (if there is not enough time, it is just as expedient to limit the list to just all places with more than 100,000 inhabitants). Explanation of the numerical differences: The atlas map (scale 1: 25,000,000) is many times larger than the map in the book (scale 1: 80,000,000), which is why there is space for numerous other entries in the atlas map. Example road maps: With a small scale number, details (small side streets, conspicuous architectural monuments ...) can be entered - with a large scale number only the important road connections are entered. Example economic maps: With a small number of scales, details (smaller industrial locations, numerous tourist locations ...) can be entered - with a large number of scales, only the important business locations are entered. Method: How do I rate topographical ones cards aus ?, pages 12–13 For the description and explanation of cardscontent, page 13 General information 1. What is the subject of the card (cardsnote heading)? Topography2. Which part of the earth's surface is shown (mostly also in the cardsheading included)? Southeast Asia3. What is the scale of the map? 1: 25 000 0004. What information does the legend offer? Colored height levels for the relief; different city signatures depending on the number of inhabitants; different transport routes (motorways, trunk roads, railways, canals ...); Dams ... description of the cardscontent5. Which states are there in Southeast Asia? Here it is beneficial to use the atlas map of Southeast Asia in addition to the map in Fig. 1 (page 12). In terms of culture, Southeast Asia begins in the west with Myanmar, ends in the east with the Philippines, in the southeast with East Timor. Bangladesh already belongs to South Asia, China to East Asia, Palau to Oceania. 6. What are the capitals of the states called? See Atlas7. Do mountains or lowlands predominate in the individual states? Are the mountains more in the north or in the south? In Myanmar and Laos mountainous regions predominate, in Cambodia and Thailand lowlands predominate. It is important to realize that Southeast Asia is not just made up of lowlands! On the mainland, many mountains are more in the north of the individual states. No regularity can be observed on the islands. 8. What altitude are the mountains at? It is sufficient to name a few mountain peaks on the mainland as well as on the larger islands. Name seven large islands in Southeast Asia. Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Luzon, Mindanao, Timor, Flores, Bali ... Which states do these belong to? See Atlas10. The five largest rivers in Southeast Asia: Irawadi, Salwin, Mekong, Chao Phraya, Red River. Through which states does each of the rivers flow? See Atlas11. What parts of the sea does Southeast Asia border on? Bay of Bengal, South China Sea, Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tongking, Java Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea… 12. How many megacities are there in Southeast Asia? 18 (Please take into account the respective atlas edition!) 13. How many major railroad lines are there in Southeast Asia? At least the longer ones should be named with start and end locations, e.g. Hanoi - Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), Jakarta - Surabaya (Indonesia), Bangkok - Singapore (Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore) ... Which regions do you connect? Examples of: Coast - Inland (Rangoon - Mandalay); Capital - Big City (Phnom Penh - Bat Dambang); Capitals rarely among each other (Bangkok - Phnom Penh). Do the railway lines follow the river valleys or do they also cross mountains? Most of the railway lines follow the river valleys and rarely cross mountains (Java Island) .14. How many major highways (trunk roads) are there in Southeast Asia? There are only highways in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia (Java Island) and the Philippines; Highways also in other countries, but with different densities. Which regions do they connect (coast - inland; capital - big city; capitals with each other)? See Atlas Do the motorways (trunk roads) follow the river valleys or do they also overcome mountains? Often parallel to mountains, not necessarily along large rivers. 15. What additional information does the legend also contain? Ancient sites, coral reef Regarding the tasks, page 131 and 2: The two questions can also be assigned to groups based on division of labor. 14


Method: How do I rate thematic cards off ?, page 14 For description and explanation of cardscontent, page 14 General information 1. What is the subject of the card (cardsnote heading)? Urbanization 19502. Which part of the earth's surface is shown (mostly also in the cardsheading included)? World3. What is the scale of the map? 1: 200 000 0004. What information does the legend offer? Proportion of the urban population in percent Description of the cardscontent: 5. In which countries was the urban population already over 75% in 1950? United Kingdom 6. In which parts of the world did the urban population make up between 50 and 75% of the population in 1950? Europe, North and South America, Australia 7. Which part of the world was the least urbanized in 1950? Africa8.What are the contrasts in Europe in 1950? Northern and western Europe more urbanized, southern and eastern Europe less urbanized To the tasks, page 14 A suitable map can be found, for example, in the HÖLZEL Universal Atlas on page 33. Method: How do you work cartographically at an advanced level ?, Pages 15-16 To the tasks, page 151. Distribution of mineral resources in Spain and Portugal: The result depends in detail on the atlas map used. There are large clusters of mineral resources in northern Spain and in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. To the tasks, page 161. Characteristic for a happy life: Life in the country is not a conscious alternative to escape the hectic city in many poor countries, but a life on the edge of the economic subsistence level. So “rural life” has a different meaning in different regions.2. Variable: According to values ​​from the World Bank (query in May 2013), Greenland, with its inland ice sheet, ranks alone at the top with 10.66 million m³ of potential freshwater supply per inhabitant. The next country, Iceland, is only a twentieth of this value. Only 13 countries have more than 1% of the peak available. The fresh water supply only has a massive effect on the total value of the "happiness index" in Greenland and suddenly catapults this country into first place. Otherwise, economically weak countries are also in the top ranks in this index calculation because the proportion of the rural population is high there, and in some cases Life expectancy has also risen sharply. For many countries, no value for fresh water supply can be statistically determined. These are therefore not included in the overall calculation, including probably candidates for extreme values. The following map shows the “happiness index from life expectancy, rural population and potential fresh water supply” .15


Topic: About the meaning of languages, pages 17–19 General information In this section, a “formative cultural factor” is presented, whereby the students should clearly differentiate the spread of this cultural-geographical feature on earth from similar phenomena. Pages 17 and 18 (including the paragraph “linguistic languages”) convey the basic knowledge according to the learning objective. If large language groups are to be recognized as such formative cultural factors, this does not mean that knowledge of linguistic characteristics should be acquired. Using the map of the “languages ​​of the world” (Fig. 3 on page 8 and Fig. 2 on page 18), the pupils should recognize the typical distribution of the large language groups in our world. This already defines certain spaces for a cultural-geographical structure. The effects of colonialism in the spread of lingua franca and the global dominance of European languages ​​as a result of Europeanization can also be discussed here. To the tasks, page 19Languages ​​worldwide1. The respective lingua franca is the colonial language from the 19th and 20th centuries (or even from the time of mercantilism). To be answered individually. 3. German, Czech, Slovak, Hungarian etc. (selection - here there is the possibility to link languages ​​and states of Europe. However, reference should also be made to the minority languages ​​in most states - atlas map!) 4. Most of the time they serve cards to present the language of the majority population as the predominant language in the state and not to mention the languages ​​of the minorities. Languages ​​in Nigeria5. The many languages ​​cannot be read from the language map - mainly due to the scale. 6. The English language dominates in Nigeria, and Arabic is also important. In contrast, Fig. 1 on page 18 shows the complicated distribution of only the great peoples with their languages. A comparison of Figs. 1 and 3, page 18 shows that, due to the great variety of languages, English has established itself as the lingua franca. Arabic as a second lingua franca is promoted by the Islamic north of Nigeria. The large number of peoples and tribes in Nigeria did not allow a native language to be used as lingua franca - so the “neutral” way out was to make the former colonial English the official language Language8. These are former French colonies in which French has established itself as the lingua franca. 9. See text on page 1810. See Fig. 2, p. 18 and Fig. 4, p. 19 Topic: Religions on Earth - Global and Regional, Pages 20–23 General information In this section, a second “formative cultural factor” is presented and pupils should clearly distinguish the distribution of this cultural-geographic feature on earth from similar phenomena. Regarding the tasks, page 231. See table. Note: Here the teacher should determine on which regional basis the main areas of distribution of the religions should be named, i.e. whether on a continent or a cultural basis. For smaller religions (Sikhism, Judaism) states should be named.ReligionChristianism of which Roman Catholic Islam of Sunni HinduismBuddhismConfucianism and TaoismSikhismJudismNatural religions "New religions" Main areas of distributionEurope, North America, South America, Australia, central and southern Africa; Russia, Philippines ... South and Central America, large parts of Europe, parts of North America and AfricaNorth Africa, Southwest Asia, Central Asia, South Asia (Pakistan, Bangladesh, parts of India), Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia) North Africa, Southwest Asia (except Iran and parts of Afghanistan), large Parts of Southeast AsiaSouth Asia (India) Southeast Asia, East AsiaEast AsiaIndiaIsraelAfrica, North Asia, Northern CanadaIndia, North America, Europe16


2. From the cardscomparison shows that the scale is very crucial for the cardscontent is. Fig. 8 (page 22) shows that from a religious point of view, South Asia cannot simply be equated with the classification “India = Hinduism, Pakistan = Islam”, as in a small-scale atlas map. Different majorities and changing minorities can only be done on a large scalecards are shown. What is true for South Asia can also be questioned for other regions. 3. Concrete example at the moment are the discussions (in France, Austria and Switzerland) about the questions of building minarets at mosques, the wearing of headscarves by Islamic women, and finally the question about putting up crosses in public schools… 4. Since the values ​​change annually, an exact specification is not expedient. Matching search terms can be entered in search engines. A very good address is of course the FAO statistics page at http://faostat.fao.org.5. See answer to exercise 4.6. See Atlas. Topic: Continents and Cultivated Lands, pages 24-26 General Notes This topic addresses the cultural and economic characteristics. It is about the old point of contention of the division of the world into parts of the world. This structure has been scientifically declared by the majority to be incorrect. Since the theory of Samuel P. HUNTINGTON ("The Clash of Civilizations"; see Fig. 1 on page 27), the doctrine of the cultivated parts of the earth, the actually mediating culture and not - as Huntington's theory - showing cultural combative traits, gained in reputation again. It should not be overlooked, however, that the doctrine of the cultural parts of the world is often too generalized and sometimes provides rather shallow arguments. On the other hand, the desire for “order” and “structure” of the world is very great, and this desire is met very well by the culture of the earth Latin America clearly predominate. For an Indian, this designation can be a constant reference to the earlier colonial times. In addition to South and Central America, the designation Latin America also includes the states of the Caribbean. "Sub-Saharan Africa" ​​is often also referred to as "Black Africa", but this is not considered politically correct. To the tasks, page 261. Industrialized countries: high energy consumption, high economic power, mechanized intensive agriculture ...; low share of employed people in the primary sector and high share in the service sector, low illiteracy rate, low birth rates ... indigenous languages ​​(English as "common language") ... developing countries: lower energy consumption, low economic power, traditional and extensive agriculture ...; high share of employed people in the primary and medium-sized sectors Share in the service sector, higher illiteracy rate, medium to higher fertility rates ... European lingua franca, decline in the importance of native languages ​​... 2. A continent is delimited by tectonic factors, so that there are actually only five continents: Eurasia, Africa, Australia, America and Antarctica. A cultural soil, on the other hand, is delimited by human cultural features, resulting in ten cultural soil. The religious opposition Hinduism (India) - Islam (Pakistan, Bangladesh) makes a uniform classification difficult, where Buddhism comes in Sri Lanka and Nepal. Figs. 2 and 4, on the other hand, do not show any significant differences within the states of South Asia, but also not to the states of East and Southeast Asia. 4. GDP: large differences between Japan, South Korea and China (Fig. 1, page 8). Employees in the service sector: high proportion in Japan and South Korea, lower proportion in China. HDI: high level of development in Japan and South Korea, middle in China. (These three characteristics speak against a single cultural part of East Asia, the cultural tradition and the traditional value system as well as the predominance of Buddhist-Confucian-Shinto teachings, however, speak in favor of it!) 5. See table. Culturally predominant religion (s) predominant language (s) Europe Christianity variousRussia Christianity RussianAngloamerican Christianity English (Spanish, French) Latin America Christianity Spanish, PortugueseAustralia-Oceania Christianity English, FrenchOrient Islam (Judaism, Christianity, natural religions) Arabic (various) Sub-Saharan Africa various (Islam, Christianity) variousSouth Asia Hinduism and Islam variousSoutheast Asia Buddhism and Islam variousEast Asia Buddhism (various forms) Chinese, Japanese, Korean17


Topic: World civilizations, page 27 General information This chapter is directly related to the one about the cultural parts of the world. The theory of Samuel P. HUNTINGTON ("The Clash of Civilizations" or "The Clash of Civilizations"; see Fig. 1 on page 27) is very controversial because it shows anti-cultural traits and not those that convey culture, such as the doctrine of the cultural parts of the earth. Because of the “plausible” theory, Huntington's considerations are still relevant today. To the tasks, page 271. According to the “world order” theory, the Iraq conflict was almost inevitable because not only the civilization fault line but also the “Limes” run in the immediate vicinity .2. Southern US - Mexico (the US “border fence” is just one example); Muslim North Africa - Black Africa (Current sad example: Sudan! Ethiopia and some other regions are also endangered.); Russia - China; Russia - Central Asian States; Russia - Caucasus Republics (example Chechnya); India - China; India - Pakistan (Kashmir conflict!); Southern Europe - North Africa (refugees!); Korea - China.Topic: Global inequalities, Pages 28–29 General information On both sides, global inequalities are to be shown primarily from an economic point of view. This topic is elaborated and discussed in detail in the section “People and the economy” from page 128. This chapter is intended to sensitize the pupils to the problem. To the tasks, page 29 Millennium Goals 1. Adequate nutrition, clean drinking water, primary education, medical care, basic income. 2. The gap between the income and prosperity of the industrialized and developing countries is widening, although the latter show modest economic growth, albeit unevenly distributed among the individual groups of society. The specifications for answering the question and the desired scope are the responsibility of the teachers. Due to the low price level, especially for everyday goods, purchasing power in India is much higher with the same amount of money than with just dividing GDP by population. Global inequalities5. Individual solutions. 6. The specifications for answering the question and the desired scope are the responsibility of the teachers. On the homepage of the website, the chapters “The OECD” and “Our Topics” are of particular interest.7. The teachers are responsible for answering the question and the desired scope.Method: How do you evaluate photos ?, pages 30–31To the tasks, page 31Description or interpretation1. See table for examples. Description There are cranes to see. Houses have up to seven floors. A lot of glass was processed. The larger windows mostly point towards the water. There is a church tower in the background ... Street lighting can be seen. A construction site can be seen here. Interpretation It is still being built. It looks like expensive "living space by the water" ... what is on It looks very modern. Perhaps there will be further construction on this side of the street, possibly the new part of the city will be continued here. Individual solutions Photo interpretation 3. Individual solutions18


Topic: This is how I imagine Southeast Asia, pages 32–33 General informationThis topic is clearly an "addition" in terms of the curriculum, but in the opinion of the team of authors it appears to be the end of a chapter dealing with the question "One Earth - Many Worlds" This is important for reasons of political education, because in our heads we have ideas about different regions, states, continents, especially about different people. The ideas can come from various sources - from personal experience or stories, from magazines, books, television, the Internet ... It is all too easy for clichés and prejudices to arise from them. Everyone constructs their own ideas about any topic or region (e.g. Southeast Asia) in their own head and usually uses their previous knowledge for this purpose. But this does not always have to be right ... This chapter is intended to help the pupils to become clear about their ideas about a topic or about a region and its inhabitants. Students' own thoughts. Note: Both questions are intentionally formulated in an open-ended manner in order to allow for all ideas and opinions of the students. It will be interesting whether geographical features are also mentioned. 2. Students' own thoughts. Note: By reducing the various terms to the common ones, it becomes easier to question the students' ideas about Southeast Asia in the discussion and thus to uncover the constructs about Southeast Asia. "Geographical" features (natural and human geographic type!) Can possibly be inquired about separately. Own considerations. Note: Internet research can also be done. K A P I T E L 3: L E B E N S R A U M E R D EKompetencies: The following skills are particularly required in this chapter: Methodological skills: The analysis of climate diagrams and the like cardsmaterial as well as the statistical processing or Analysis is one of the fundamentals of this chapter. Orientation competence: This chapter can also be used to “consolidate and secure a global topographical grid”, “in order to be able to classify spatial information independently”. Synthesis competence: “The spatial conditions and their use” can be used by everyone Areas of this chapter will be worked out. Environmental literacy: An important goal of this chapter should be to analyze the habitat earth as the basis for human behavior. "The complexity of the network of relationships between natural and human factors should be recognized and a position taken on the effects of human interventions". "Landscapes should be assessed economically and ecologically as living spaces, conflicts of interest in the use of spaces should be recognized and the need for spatial planning measures should be justified", e.g.based on the topic "Soil as a landscape element". The Earth's climate, from page 34Method: How do I draw a climate diagram? How do I interpret a climate diagram ?, pages 38–41Creating a climate diagram in individual steps, page 38The Accra climate diagram can be found in the appendix as a template About the tasks, page 411. The climate diagrams of Alice Springs, Medan / Sumatra and the New Siberian Islands can also be found in the appendix as a copy template. Individual solutionsTopic: Solar radiation causes climate zoning, pages 42–43To the tasks, page 43Climate classifications1. Austria according to Köppen / Geiger: either deciduous and mixed forest climate of the temperate zone or high mountain climate; Nach Troll / Paffen: either a humid, warm, moderate rainy climate or a humid boreal climate. 2. The structure according to Wladimir Köppen and Rudolf Geiger belongs to the so-called “effective climate classifications”. They show the climatic conditions and their effects on the vegetation. Carl Troll and Karlheinz Paffen refer mainly to the seasonal changes in climate elements and their impact on the zoning of vegetation. The different climate classifications result from the use of different delimitation criteria. 19