How common are yeast infections after pregnancy

Risk coverage before and during pregnancy Infections in Pregnancy

The gynecologist accompanies the expectant mother through her pregnancy with a comprehensive preventive care program - for her protection and the protection of the child. A main focus should be on possible infections, which can primarily be harmful to the child's health. The tricky thing about it: the expectant mother often does not even notice the infections.

Last revised March 2021

How do pregnant women determine whether the unborn child could be at risk?

The gynecologist can determine with just a few laboratory tests whether there is a particular risk for the unborn child. All you need is a few drops of blood!

Rubella - a disease affecting children and adolescents?

Yes and no. Most often the disease occurs in children between the ages of three and ten years. For the most part, it is harmless and without any consequential damage. But: If an expectant mother who has no or not enough defenses (antibodies) of her own against the rubella virus becomes infected, there is a risk that the unborn child will also be infected with the virus. In the first eleven weeks of pregnancy, rubella infection is transmitted to the unborn child in up to 90 out of 100 cases. Possible consequence: severe deformities. The main source of infection are children with rubella - pregnant women who are often with many children, such as teachers, are exposed to a particular risk.

Women who want to have children should urgently have their vaccination status checked and, if necessary, be vaccinated before a possible pregnancy. But even if there is a suspicion of infection, pregnant women should consult their gynecologist as soon as possible. Within the first four days after infection, mother and child can still be adequately protected from consequential damage.

Good to know: Particularly contagious at the beginning

In the first eleven weeks of pregnancy, rubella infection is transmitted to the unborn child in up to 90 out of 100 cases.

Source: BZgA

If you suspect rubella, see a doctor quickly

Even if you suspect infection with rubella, pregnant women should consult their gynecologist as soon as possible. Within the first four days after infection, mother and child can still be adequately protected from consequential damage.

How dangerous is toxoplasmosis?

The toxoplasmosis pathogen usually cannot harm healthy adults. Only: If an expectant mother is infected with this pathogen for the first time, it can reach the unborn child via the blood and infect it. Damage to the eyes and the brain up to the most severe deformities can be the result. The adult is usually infected without any signs of disease appearing. At least no visible ones - because this infection can only be detected with the help of laboratory tests.

Toxoplasmosis can be prevented

Mother and child are protected if sufficient antibodies against this pathogen have already been formed before pregnancy. It is therefore advisable to determine the titer before or at the beginning of pregnancy. If there is a suspicion of infection during pregnancy, for example in a neighbour's cat, an examination is advisable - because if it is detected early enough, the infection of the unborn child can be prevented.

By the way: The costs for testing for toxoplasmosis are covered by some statutory health insurance companies.

Insidious: cytomegaly virus (CMV)

If a pregnant woman becomes infected for the first time, there is a ten percent risk that the newborn will become seriously ill (damage to the brain, lungs, liver, eyes). Here, too, a laboratory test provides clarity: If a pregnant woman has enough antibodies, these also protect the child. The child is also at risk later on: The CMV can also be passed on to the infant via breast milk or saliva.

Warning: chlamydia!

Around every tenth woman is infected with chlamydia without even realizing it. The bacteria can be transmitted through sexual contact. They usually do not cause any obvious discomfort and therefore go undetected. However, pregnant women with a chlamydial infection endanger the health of the newborn (e.g. pneumonia). A laboratory test that the doctor can use to diagnose chlamydia will reveal the infection. It can then be treated with antibiotics.

Other pathogens

There are of course other pathogens that can be dangerous to the child during pregnancy. These include, for example: herpes simplex virus, HIV, hepatitis B virus, parvoviruses, listeria and varicella zoster virus (chickenpox). If you want to be sure about the risk of which infections could be dangerous for your child, you should speak to your gynecologist. He can certainly provide information, possibly after another blood test.

Further tests and offers for pregnant women and newborns

In August 2020, the G-BA decided to include the prenatal determination of the fetal Rhesus factor in the maternity guidelines. A reimbursement by the statutory health insurance companies can be expected from spring 2021.

Preeclampsia is one of the High blood pressure disordersthat only occur during pregnancy. Since October 2019, the health insurance companies have been assuming the costs of diagnostic laboratory tests if pre-eclampsia is suspected. They determine the PlGF concentration and the sFlt-1 / PlGF quotient.

This vaccination has been one of the standard benefits of the statutory health insurance for women during pregnancy since July 2020. The Federal Joint Committee is thus following a new recommendation from the Standing Vaccination Commission (STIKO) of the Robert Koch Institute. The experts hope that this will improve the nest protection for babies.

Gestational diabetes is a disordered glucose tolerance disorder. The proportion of pregnant women with GDM is increasing. Risk factors are the increasing average age of first-time mothers, overweight and obesity. Pregnant women are entitled to a test for gestational diabetes (gestational diabetes) as a benefit from statutory health insurance. Gestational diabetes is when the blood sugar exceeds certain levels during pregnancy. This increases the risk of certain rare birth complications. The pre-test and, if necessary, the second test should be offered in the sixth or seventh month of pregnancy. The pre-test serves to identify the women who are then offered a second, crucial sugar test. If gestational diabetes has been diagnosed, normalization of the values ​​can often be achieved with a change in diet and increased physical activity.

The joint Federal Committee of Doctors and Health Insurance Funds (G-BA) has been regulating all aspects of newborn screening in a guideline since April 2005. A blood test for rare congenital metabolic and hormonal disorders is offered and recommended for all newborns in Germany a few days after birth. The children's guideline was recently expanded to include tests for tyrosinemia, cystic fibrosis and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). About one in 1000 children is affected by such a disease. Participation in this screening process is voluntary and requires the consent of the newborn's parents. If possible, blood tests should be performed on every newborn between 36 and 72 hours of age. A few drops of blood are taken from the baby's heel, dripped onto a test card, dried, and sent to a laboratory approved for newborn screening. The maternity clinic, midwife or resident pediatrician are responsible for taking blood; the test card is destroyed after 3 months. If the early diagnosis enables targeted treatment to be initiated as soon as possible after the birth, disabilities can be avoided and deaths prevented. Newborn screening is constantly being expanded.

Newborn examination with procalcitonin if bacterial infection is suspected

Too little folic acid in the mother's blood can lead to various developmental disorders in the newborn.

That’s coming in 2021

Prenatal testing as part of maternity examinations

A DNA blood test for trisomy 13, 18 and 21, also known as a non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), can in future be used by legally insured patients in justified cases. An inconspicuous result excludes with a very high degree of reliability that the unborn child has a trisomy. Conventional amniocentesis (amniocentesis) or tissue removal from the placenta (chorionic villus sampling) are then only required for confirmation in the event of an abnormal test. The NIPT is expected to be a cash benefit in 2021 in justified cases be reimbursed. Information for the insured will be published beforehand.

Extension of newborn screening

Screening for 5q-associated spinal muscular atrophy will also be part of the early diagnosis of newborns, and this is expected to start in the third quarter of 2021.