What are the earliest signs of gas lighting

The gas lighting in Augsburg

That's where it all started! The first gasworks were built for gas lighting in cities!

There are still various types of former gas lamps on Augsburg's streets and squares, but (almost) all of them are now "electrified".

There are currently 25 gas-powered lanterns at four different locations in Augsburg.

 

Gas lanterns in the Fuggerei

On the one hand the Riedinger lantern, named after L.A. Riedinger, who made these lamps in his factory (here in Augsburg). There are a total of 6 "Riedinger" in the Fuggerei still run on gas become!

Manufacturer: L.A. Riedinger Maschinen und Bronzewarenfabrik (Augsburg)

 

Here you can see a "Riedinger" gas lantern in the Fuggerei.
© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz


 

Here you can see the "Riedinger" gas lantern in the Fuggerei a little closer.
Above the mantles, next to it the ignition unit, from which the red line goes to the ignition device, which is supplied with a 1.5 volt battery.
© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz 


 

Here you can also see a close-up of the "Riedinger" gas lantern in the Fuggerei.
In the middle you can see the gas pipe very well.
© and Source: Oliver Frühschütz


 

A heavily darkened close-up, so the light appears to be yellow,
In reality, however, the four mantles are completely white and very easy to see.
© and Source: Oliver Frühschütz


 

The picture shows how the Fuggerei is lit up with gas lamps at night.
You can see that the light is white and not yellowish, as you might think.
If you go very close to the lamps, you can also hear the gas flowing.
© and Source: Oliver Frühschütz

They are not ignited with a pressure wave from the gasworks, as they used to be, but now have "automatic" detonators that are connected to a brightness sensor. This is fed by two 1.5 volt batteries (see also pictures)

In 2014 all 6 gas lamps in the Fuggerei were completely restored and equipped with completely new controls.

 

Gas lanterns in the former Augsburg gasworks

Note: Currently all gas lamps in the gasworks have been dismantled due to the renovation work.

Since September 2008, on the 160th anniversary of the gas supply in Augsburg, the Augsburg gas works in August-Wessels-Str. 30 gas lighting again.

The following 11 lights are currently available:

Special feature: With the exception of the model lights, all lanterns have been since 2010 after dark

in operation for about 2 hours and then turn off automatically.

2 new model lights each 4 flames from the company Braun with spark ignition and pilot flame and flame monitoring

The model lights

Right: during the day (soon)

Left: View at night, the picture is exposed very briefly so that you can see the mantles nicely, in real life the lamp is of course many times brighter

© and Source: Oliver Frühschütz 2008

 

2 Pintsch Bamag U7 post-war models, each with 6 flames and pilot light

One of the two Pintsch Bamag U7,

Left: in operation during the day,

Right: View at night, the picture is exposed very briefly so that you can see the mantles nicely, in real life the lamp is of course many times brighter

© and Source: Oliver Frühschütz 2008

 

1 Schneider light fitting model 52 6 flames with twilight switch and pilot light

The Schneider attachment light

Right: during the day (soon)

Left: View at night, the picture is exposed very briefly so that you can see the mantles nicely, in real life the lamp is of course many times brighter

© and Image source: Oliver Frühschütz 2008

 

1 Schneider row lamp model L 56 6 flames with twilight switch and pilot light

The row light in operation during the day

© and Image source: Oliver Frühschütz 2008

 

3 Schneider top-mounted lights model 52 each with 6 flames with twilight switch and pilot light

One of the three Schneider top-mounted lights, this lamp was supplemented by us with a manual switch, so we can switch this lamp on for 10 minutes during tours during the day.

Left: during the day with pilot light

Right: at night

© and Image source: Oliver Frühschütz 2008 

 

2 Pintsch Bamag U7 pre-war models, each with 4 flames and pilot light

Pictures coming soon

 

Gas lanterns in Göggingen near Erdgas Schwaben

There are also 7 mast lights in Göggingen in front of Erdgas Schwaben in Bayerstraße.

By 2010/2011 there were 5 mast lights and a wall lantern. A mast lamp and the wall arm were removed in a new building, but three mast lamps were repositioned. By the end of 2012 there were a total of 6 Pintsch Bamag U7 lanterns (pre-war model).

 

Since 2013 7 mast lights with new lanterns (hexagonal model lights model "Alt Berlin" all 4 lights) are in operation on site.

 

It is a bit of a shame that the typical street lamps from around 1940, as they were used as street lighting in countless places in Germany and also in many places that are now supplied by Erdgas Schwaben and were previously also used in Augsburg, are now used against new models which were not available anywhere in this area in this way and were exchanged. Nevertheless, it is of course very nice that the lanterns are still operated with gas even after the renewal.

 

The new gas lantern models "Alt Berlin" 4 flames with pilot light

© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz

 

Entrance with the new gas lamps

© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz

 

Parking lot with gas lights

© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz

 


 

Here you can see a now dismantled "Pintsch Bamag U7" gas lantern on the wall arm in Bayerstraße in Augsburg Göggingen.
© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz


 

Here you can see another gas lantern on a mast in Bayerstraße in Augsburg Göggingen. (Mast meanwhile moved and with new gas lamp)
© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz


 

The gas lantern in detail in Bayerstrasse in Augsburg Göggingen.
You can see the four (whitish) incandescent mantles in the middle of the lamp.

In the meantime replaced by new gas lamps.
© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz


 

The gas lamp on Bayerstrasse in operation at night.
The picture is darkened so that you can see the incandescent hoods nicely. The brightness of the gas lamp is almost the same as that of an electric street lamp and the light is white, not yellowish as one might think.

In the meantime replaced by new gas lamps.
© and image source: Oliver Frühschütz

 

Private gas lantern in Hirschstrasse 84 in Augsburg

Since July 2016 there has been a Riedinger gas lantern with 4 flames on an Augsburg mast, visible from the street, in my courtyard, which is in operation every evening when it gets dark. The ignition is carried out by a spark igniter and the lantern comes on when it gets dark and runs all night until it is light again and envelops the courtyard entrance in beautiful gas light.

The lantern, named after L.A. Riedinger, was made here in Augsburg.

As far as I know, along with another Riedinger lantern in the Berlin Lantern Museum, it is the only Riedinger gas lantern on a mast that is still operated with gas.

© Oliver Frühschütz 2016

© Oliver Frühschütz 2016

© Oliver Frühschütz 2016

© Oliver Frühschütz 2016

© Oliver Frühschütz 2016

 

History of gas lighting in Augsburg

  • From 1780 the streets in Augsburg were partially illuminated with oil lanterns.

  • Already 1825 the chemist Dingler had already lit the halls (original - no typo) and corridors of the then newly built polytechnic school with gas. The portable lamps had a container in which the compressed gas was located.

  • May 15th 1847 the city of Augsburg concluded a 30-year contract with Baron August von Eichenthal, in which the city received 335 gas lamps without having to pay any production costs. A joint-stock company, the Augsburger Gasbeleuchtungs-Gesellschaft, was founded to carry out this company.

  • until 1848 the lighting was done with 655 oil lanterns.

  • 1848 Opening of the first Augsburg gas factory to illuminate the streets with 335 gas lamps. After Nuremberg, Augsburg was the second Bavarian city to have gas lighting.

  • on December 17, 1848 the gas lamps in Augsburg were put into operation for the first time.

  • 1849 307 gas lanterns and 288 oil lanterns were in operation.

  • 1854 L.A. Riedinger founded his "L.A. Riedingersche Maschinen- und Bronzewarenfabrik" in which, among other things, many gas appliances and gas lamps were built. The "Riedinger lights" can still be seen in Augsburg's old town today.

  • 1858 (after 10 years) 499 gas lanterns and only 115 oil lanterns were in operation.

  • 1863 528 gas lanterns and 112 oil lanterns were still in operation,

    including 1 at the theater entrance and 13 gas lanterns at the Augustusbrunnen and Frohnhof, which were only in use when needed.

    1863 Establishment of a second gas factory by L.A. Riedinger

  • 1864 the last 112 oil lanterns were exchanged for 110 gas lanterns, now Augsburg was illuminated with 631 gas lanterns

  • 1868 (after 20 years) 721 gas lanterns, 13 of them only for special occasions

  • 1873 908 gas lanterns were already in operation, the hole burners used up to now were exchanged for so-called cut burners

  • 1876 the number rose to over 1000 lanterns for the first time

  • 1878 (after 30 years) 1079 street flame

  • 1882 first attempts in Augsburg with electr. Street lighting, which is why a Siemens regenerative gas burner was put into operation at the Merkur Fountain, which was brighter than the electric light. The attempt remained and the streets continued to be lit with gas.

  • 1885 1202 street flames, of which 568 all night (3654 h per year with 456.75 m³ consumption per year) and 553 half-night (1782 h per year with 222.75 m³ consumption per year) 81 unknown, presumably only when required total consumption 364 653 m³ for street lighting in Year 1884

  • 1888 (after 40 years) there were 1211 gas lanterns in Augsburg

  • 1892 On a trial basis, two streets and 7 lanterns in front of the town hall were equipped with Auer lanterns (incandescent gas light)

  • 1894 Every evening about 21 lantern lighters were busy lighting the 1269 gas lanterns every evening and putting them out in the morning.

  • 1895 Introduction of the Auer gas incandescent light for gas street lighting, also the number from then. 1330 increased to 1925 pieces because a general lighting improvement was made.

  • 1896 1919 gas lanterns, including 635 au lanterns

  • 1898 (after 50 years) 1983 gas lanterns

  • 1899 the number rose for the first time over 2000 lanterns U

    Conversion of all gas lamps to Auer gas incandescent light ended

  • 1902 there were already 2030 pieces with one burner and 158 pieces with double burners, which are attached to busy intersections.

    1020 of the gas lanterns with a burner were in operation until 11 a.m., the rest (1010 pieces) all night

    87 of the double burners were also in operation until 11 a.m., the rest (71) all night

Swell: Extract from the Society for Gas Industry in Augsburg (pages 116-118) and from the commemorative publication "Augsburg in Art History, Structural and Hygienic Relationship" (pages 60-61) from 1902

and dissertation "Augsburg from the foundation of the Augsburg gasworks in 1848 to the takeover of the same by the city of Augsburg in 1907" by Hermann Raff

The gas lighting was divided as follows until around 1852 and marked with symbols (small discs, stars, etc.) on the lanterns.

  • all lighting - from October to April all gas lamps from one hour after sunset to 9 o'clock in the evening, not in use between May and September

  • half lighting - were on until 1am

  • Signal lighting - Important gas lights at intersections and gates were in operation until 1 hour before sunrise

  • Early lighting - from 4 a.m. to an hour before sunrise (for factory workers)

in January 1860 the gas lanterns were operating as follows

156 pieces of 9 o'clock lanterns

272 pieces of 1 o'clock lanterns

46 pieces of signal lanterns

8 pieces all night lanterns

 

Beginning 1895 the gas lanterns were operating as follows

567 12 o'clock lanterns (burning time approx. 1700 hours per year)

670 pieces of signal lanterns (burning time approx. 3300 h per year)

28 pieces all night lanterns

4 extraordinary lanterns

 

  • 1907 The city of Augsburg took over the two privately operated gas works and thus also the gas lighting.

  • 1913 there were 2517 gas lanterns with Kilchmann ignition clocks

  • Until 1915 the Augsburger Gaswerke had the monopoly that only gas could be used for lighting purposes. Exceptions had to be approved by the gas works.

    From 1915 Electric lamps were then "allowed" to be used for lighting in Augsburg.

    The city of Augsburg's new gas works goes into operation in Augsburg-Oberhausen, the two old works are shut down.

  • 1917 The introduction of electric street lighting in the city center as a result of the gas-saving measures of the war, carried out according to plan since 1928. (The suburbs went ahead and had electric street lighting since 1901/02 because there was no gas supply).

    Source: Historischer Verein für Schwaben (ed.): Reconstruction and tradition of ecclesiastical and secular buildings in Augsburg and Swabia. Augsburg 1951, p. 13

  • before 1923 the lighting rods of the lantern lighters had an oil lamp to light the lanterns, then each lantern had a permanent flame and only the gas tap of the lantern lighter had to be opened.

  • 1925 There were 5 hand lighters (lantern lighters), most of the gas lanterns were probably already ignited with an ignition clock or pressure wave.

    One of the last lantern lighters from Augsburg in 1933 at work to light a Riedinger lantern.

    © and image source: Eva Owens

  • (presumably) 1933 7 lantern lighters were employed.

    On March 31, 1933 there were 1650 gas lights and 750 electric lights

  • 1936 the first main street was completely electrically illuminated and all gas lamps were switched to pressure wave ignition (remote ignition and remote extinguishing), the last lantern lighters were used elsewhere, now it was possible to switch the street lamps on and off remotely throughout the city within 5 minutes. The lighter lighter profession is dying out after 88 years in Augsburg.

  • 1938 On March 31, there were 2,712 gas lights and 1,323 electric lights

  • 1939 In Augsburg there were 2,747 gas lights and 1,507 power lights

  • 1953 on June 30th there were 2120 gas lights and 1977 electric lights

  • 1954 On December 31, there were 2510 gas lights and 2229 electric lights

  • 1969 there were 2099 gas lights and 8099 electric lights

  • About 1975-1977 the last 668 gas lamps were electrified (with the exception of Fuggerei - see above), the pressure wave is stopped.

Source from 1939, 1953 and 1954 from: The electricity-gas ratio in German city lighting 1939 1954

and "5 years of building the city of Augsburg in 1938"

  • 1945 Of the 2,234 lanterns, only a few directional lights were in operation.

  • 1946 the number of gas lanterns was increased by 211 to a total of 2445 gas lanterns (3102 half-night flames, 5000 all-night flames) - thus around 3.3 flames per lantern - and all ignited with gas pressure remote igniters, but only 223 lanterns were in operation again.

  • 1947 373 of the 2445 gas lanterns were in operation (consumption per luminaire and year 235 m³ and 6 incandescent bodies)

  • 1948 1,055 gas lanterns out of a total of 2,447 gas lanterns were in operation.

  • 1949 1441 gas lanterns were in operation, the number of lanterns was increased to 2480.

  • 1950 1702 gas lanterns (4650 flames) were thus in operation, the number of lanterns was increased to 2485 (8241 flames).

  • 1951 In 1938 gas lanterns (5391 flames) were in operation, the number of lanterns was increased to 2534 (8423 flames). (Consumption per luminaire and year 530 m³ and 5.3 incandescent bodies)

  • 1952 2068 gas lanterns (6480 flames) were in operation.

  • 1953 2165 gas lanterns (7286 flames) were in operation.

  • 1954 2229 gas lanterns (7760 flames) were in operation, so 100.5 km of streets in Augsburg were illuminated with gas.

  • 1955 2243 gas lanterns (8079 flames) were in operation due to the dismantling of the gas lighting in Ulmer Straße, Langenmantelstraße and Pferseer Straße, there were only 98.5 km of gas-lit streets in Augsburg, the increase in the number was due to the redensification of the existing gas-lit streets.

  • 1956 2275 gas lanterns (8509 flames) were in operation due to the dismantling of the gas lighting in Schießgrabenstrasse and Wolframstrasse, there were only 97.5 km of gas-lit streets in Augsburg.

  • 1957 2316 gas lanterns (8699 flames) were in operation.

  • 1958 Thommstrasse, Frauentorstrasse and Untere Lechdammstrasse were electrified, as the 90 or so gas lanterns dismantled there were re-compacted in the side streets, the number of 2312 gas lanterns available remained almost constant.

  • 1959 The gas lighting was dismantled in the following streets: Prinzregentenstrasse (21 pieces) Riedinger-Weiden-Innere Uferstrasse (12 pieces) Perzheimstrasse (9 pieces) Holzbachstrasse, Kirschenweg, Ludwig and Kasernenstrasse (about 8 pieces)

    9-flame gas row lights were newly installed: 14 pieces in Rosenaustraße, 14 pieces in Morellstraße, 16 pieces in Stettenstraße, 22 top lights were dismantled for this. In the swimming school-Holzbachstrasse street, the lighting was improved by adding 17 gas lanterns, as well as another 10 luminaires in smaller streets, so there were a total of 2294 gas lanterns (44 of which were row lights). The electric street lighting was switched on by the gas pressure wave until the beginning of October and replaced by signal control from October.

  • 1960 A total of 50 gas lanterns were set up, including 15 row lights in Von-der-Thann-Str., but around 80 gas lanterns were dismantled and replaced by electric lanterns. Thus, the number of gas lanterns changed to 2264 pieces (59 of which were row lights).

  • 1961 83 gas lanterns were re-erected, but 43 dismantled so the number rose to 2304 pieces. 28 row lights were installed in Hochfeldstrasse, Eserwall and down to Schertlinstrasse. (A total of 87 row lights)

  • 1962 46 new gas lamps were installed and 31 dismantled. The number of flames in some lanterns has been increased and some lanterns have been changed from half-night to all-night. So there were 2319 gas lamps on 90.90 km of road with 9242 flames.

  • 1963 49 new gas lamps were installed and 69 dismantled. In the Hochfeldstrasse and v. Richthofen-Strasse, 16 gas lanterns were replaced by 36 row lights on whip masts. (A total of 123 row lights). Further new gas lanterns were erected in Paracelsusstrasse (4), on Seitzsteg (4), in Luis-Braille-Strasse (4) and in Apothekergäßchen (1).

  • 1964 22 new gas lamps were installed and 72 dismantled.

    New building: Otto-Lindenmeyer (10), Lindauer Str. (6), Kohlergasse (3), Lazarettstr. (2), Stadtbachstrasse (1)

    So there were 2243 gas lanterns compared to 6503 electric lanterns.

Source: Annual reports Stadtwerke Augsburg

 

The following models used to run on gas in Augsburg.

  • With the exception of a multi-armed candelabra in front of the city theater, I only know of individual top-mounted lights on a mast or wall arm and row lights as gas lanterns in Augsburg.

    As far as I know, side lights or pendant lights were never used in Augsburg (with gas).

     

  • A square model can be seen in some old pictures, unfortunately details are unknown, probably one of the first types of gas lanterns in Augsburg.

    It is not known how long these models have been around in photos from around 1870 to 1900.

          

    before 1900 At the Wertachbrucker Tor in the Karolinenstraße in the city garden

     

    Lantern cleaner on the Mauerberg

  • Riedinger model top-mounted light hexagonal with two ! Little doors, as they can still be seen today in part in the old town (partly original, partly as replicas)

    (see also the photo above of the lantern lighter)

    Riedinger lantern with standing burner and Auer mantle around 1900 (certainly after 1892)

     

  • Graetzin very old model, type unknown

     

  • Ehrich & Graetz (Graetzin) top-mounted lights, roof shape "A"

    © and image source: Gaswerkfreunde Augsburg e.V.

     

  • Ehrich & Graetz (Graetzin) top-mounted lights, roof shape "B"

    © and image source: Gaswerkfreunde Augsburg e.V.

     

  • Pintsch Bamag U7 post-war model post-top light

    © and image source: Gaswerkfreunde Augsburg e.V

  • 38 9-flame row lights Bamag U13 H row lights, Hamburg model on Rosenaustraße

    on November 1, 1956, the Schwäbische Landeszeitung reported the following:

    A new type of luminaire was installed on Rosenaustraße. Whip lights,

    which, in contrast to the previous ones, are fed with gas, have replaced the old lanterns.

    There are 9 incandescent bodies in each of the 38 lights.