Are Australians like the British
|approx. 60,000 BC Chr.||Immigration of indigenous people from Indonesia. |
The oldest skeleton in Australia was found at Lake Mungo, New South Wales. The University of Canberra believes this is the oldest human DNA - around 60,000 years old. They contain traces of applied ocher paints that were most likely used for ceremonies.
Detailed information on the history of the Australian aborigines is available on a special page in AUSTRALIEN-INFO.DE.
|1606||The Portuguese Louis Vaez de Torres sails between Cape York and New Guinea through the Torres Strait. The Dutchman Williem Jansz lands on the west coast of Cape York and is the first European to set foot in Australia.|
|1642||The Dutch Abel Tasman discovers Tasmania. In 1643 he sails along the north and north-west coast of Australia. |
The Dutch Dirk Hartog, van Diemen and Abel Tasman mapped a large part of the coastal strip, but showed little interest in colonizing what they saw as hostile and barren land.
|1770||The British James Cook anchors with the "Endeavor" on the way back from the South Pacific in Botany Bay, south of what will later become Sydney. In August he takes the eastern part of Australia for the English crown in possession. |
On board the Endeavor were some scientists and a botanist (Banks) who discovered amazing plant and animal species on the mainland that no one had seen before. The British found the east coast fertile and suitable for settlement. The land was baptized "New South Wales" and claimed for the British crown in the name of King George III. While in Queensland, where his ship was being repaired, Cook came into contact with the Aborigines and was impressed by the apparently happy lives they led.
|1788||First permanent settlement of Europeans through the settlement of convicts from England.|
|1793||The first free settlers arrive in Australia.|
|1797||John McArthur introduces the merino sheep. Ten years later the first shipload of wool goes to England.|
|1801 - 1803||Matthew Flinders circumnavigates the continent and maps it. George Bass, namesake of the stormy Bass Strait, was only on the sailing tour around Tasmania with Flinders.|
|1803||Foundation of the first settlement in Tasmania: Hobart.|
|1813||The crossing of the Blue Mountains initiates settlement in the west. Its discoverers were Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson.|
|1824||First Queensland settlement established: Brisbane.|
|1829||Establishment of the first settlement in Western Australia: Perth.|
|1835||Establishment of the first settlement in Victoria: Melbourne on Port Philipp Bay.|
|1836||Establishment of the first settlement in South Australia: Adelaide on Gulf St Vincent.|
|1851||First gold discoveries in Victoria and New South Wales.|
|1860||John McDouall Robert O'Hara Burke and William Wills were the first Europeans to cross the continent from south to north. You were killed on the way back to Melbourne from the Gulf of Carpentaria.|
|1862||John McDouall Stuart is the first living person to cross the continent from south to north.|
|1901||On January 1, 1901, Governor Lord Hopetoun proclaimed Australia the "Federal Commonwealth of Australia" at a solemn ceremony in the Sydney Centennial Park. The establishment of the "Australian Confederation" from the British colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia and Tasmania is perfect. |
Four million people live on the continent. Rivalries and regional patriotism made the federation seem almost impossible before. It is thanks to the tireless efforts of five-time Prime Minister of New South Wales Sir Henry Parkes that Australia became a federal state.
Melbourne becomes the capital. 3.7 million inhabitants vote for the first parliament.
|1907||On September 26th, the Australian Confederation received Dominion status, which equates to almost complete independence from Great Britain.|
|1908||Introduction of minimum wages. |
Andrew Fisher (Labor Party) becomes the new Prime Minister.
|1914||Great Britain declares war on Germany - so Australia is automatically in a state of war. |
Australian troops occupy the German colonies of New Guinea, Samoa and the Bismarck Archipelago in the Pacific and some of them are also shipped to the Middle East and European theaters of war (including Palestine, France). In total, almost 350,000 (!!) Australians (exclusively volunteers) take part in the war.
|1915||The battle on April 25 near Gallipoli (Turkey) becomes Waterloo with high losses for the Australian-New Zealand troops. Since then, the day has been a national holiday (ANZAC Day).|
|1918||A sad result of the First World War for Australia: 60,000 killed and almost 170,000 wounded. The identity of the Australian nation is particularly closely linked to the "Great War". At the end of the millionfold bloodshed, there was not only the defeat of the German Empire, but also the disappearance of almost all German prestige from Australian history. Internment, expropriation and deportation were the price that German immigrants had to pay for the catastrophic political mistakes of their old homeland. During the First World War, numerous men with German names spent their lives behind barbed wire, even though they were born in Australia and made their home here. Officially, however, they were considered "enemy aliens" who, denounced by their former friends and neighbors, were classified as a security risk for the young nation.|
|1921||Australia received the former German colonies of Northeast New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, the western Solomon Islands and Nauru as mandate areas from the League of Nations.|
|1927||Canberra - the official capital since March 12, 1913 - actually becomes the seat of government after it was not possible to choose either Sydney or Melbourne as the federal capital. |
Reverend John Flynn founds the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS) in Cloncurry.
|1929 ff.||The global economic crisis hits Australia and the unemployment rate skyrockets to 25%. For the first time, the number of emigrants is higher than that of immigrants. |
The railroad arrives in Alice Springs. For the first time, the Ghan drives into the red center and enables the development of Central Australia.
|1930 ff.||Between 1930 and 1967 around 7,000 British children from disadvantaged families and orphanages were shipped to Australia. According to the official interpretation, they wanted to "enable the social cases a better life". Australia, like other (ex-) colonies, wanted to "freshen up the white race". The children were told that they were going on an adventure vacation. Special agencies brought more than 130,000 British children between the ages of three and fourteen to Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and what is now Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia). Prime Minister Kevin Rudd did not officially apologize for this kidnapping until November 2009.|
|1931||Australia joins the Commonwealth of Nations.|
|1939||Australia is still closely linked to Great Britain. That leaves the Aussies with World War II. General conscription and the military alliance with the British led many Australians to war - to the Mediterranean and North Africa.|
|1942||Japan's attack on Darwin brings World War II into its own country. The coast around Sydney is also a target for Japanese bombers.|
|1945||At the end of World War II, Joseph Benedict Chifley (Labor Party) becomes the new Australian head of government. He started a new immigration policy and brought around 500,000 immigrants, mostly of European origin, into the country by 1949. |
Around 2.5 million people settled in Australia between 1950 and 1970, including several hundred thousand Asians from 1966 onwards, who until then had been denied immigration due to the "White Australia" policy.
|1951||The ANZUS defense alliance between Australia, New Zealand and the USA is concluded. |
The pact is the basis of the war participation in Korea (until 1953) and in Vietnam (1967-1969).
|1956||Australia will host the XVI for the first time in Melbourne from November 22nd. Summer Olympics. |
3,342 athletes from 67 countries take part. For Australia, the games will be their first major appearance as a tourist destination.
|1960||Aboriginal people become Australian citizens with a right to receive benefits. 2 years later they are given the right to vote. In 1967 they finally all have civil rights. The federal government in Canberra is now responsible for all aboriginal affairs.|
|1966||Introduction of the Australian dollar|
|1970||Victoria becomes the first state to transfer land to Aboriginal people.|
|1971||Foundation of the "South Pacific Forum" - as a basis for close economic and political cooperation in the region. Founding members: Australia (with Coconut Islands), New Zealand (with Cook Islands, Tokelau Islands and Niue), Fiji, Western Samoa, Papua New Guinea, Tonga and Nauru.|
|1975||Due to a corruption scandal in the federal government, the opposition is calling for its resignation and new elections. Prime Minister Edward Gough Whitlam (Labor) rejects it, the opposition blocks the budget in the Senate. The British Governor General removes Whitlam from office (legally controversial). Malcolm Fraser (Liberal Party) becomes the new Australian head of government and then wins the new elections in December.|
|1977||Aboriginal land rights in the Northern Territory are recognized.|
|1985||The Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park is being returned to the indigenous people.|
|1986||The "Australian Act" abolishes the last powers of attorney for Great Britain to intervene in the internal affairs of Australia.|
|1988||Bicentennial: From January 26th, glamorous celebrations for the 200th anniversary of the landing of the first white settlers. Many celebrations are accompanied by protests by the indigenous people.|
|1989||Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory are given rights of self-government. |
In 1990 the various Aboriginal tribes elect representatives for the "Aborigines and Torres Strait Islander Comission" (ATSIC) for the first time to represent the Australian indigenous people.
|1992||Basic recognition of the land rights of the Aborigines, after the land was officially known as "Terra Nullis" before the arrival of the European settlers. |
Economic crisis: Over 11 percent unemployment rate (the highest since the 1930s), partly due to a recession in the mining industry, an extremely low price level for beef and sheep meat. The immigration quota will be reduced: by almost 30 percent to 80,000 annually.
|1994||January: Biggest drought in 200 years with damages of over AU $ 2 billion. Bushfires destroy over a million hectares of forest and countless houses in the greater Sydney area. More than 1,000 people are left homeless and four are killed in the flames. |
May: Riots break out on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean (Australian since 1953). 80 percent of the electorate vote in a referendum for their own government.
September: John Newman (Labor Party) is murdered in Sydney. He had spoken out in favor of tougher action against organized crime (Asian Mafia).
December: The government pledges the Aborigines to pay around AU $ 14 million in compensation for the nuclear tests carried out by the British in the South Australian desert between 1953 and 1963.
|1996||April 29: A 28-year-old gunman kills 35 people in Port Arthur.|
|1999||In a referendum, the majority of Australians unexpectedly decide to keep the monarchy.|
|2000||Australia hosts the Summer Olympics in Sydney. IOC President Samaranch: "The best games ever." Rick Reilly, Sports Illustrated Commentator: “Sydney should get the 2008 Games. And 2012 to 3000. Who goes out with other women when they have Cindy Crawford? "|
|2002 / 2003||The worst forest fires in recent Australian history, coupled with a drought far exceeding that of 1994, are a major concern for agriculture and forestry.|
|2003||Australia participates in the Iraq war. As a result, the threat of terrorism also increases in Australia.|
|2004||The last big gap in the railway connections will be closed: the track now extends to Darwin. The Ghan now also connects the red center with the green top end.|
|2005||In Sydney, shortly before Christmas, riots on the beaches between white Australians and Australians with a Muslim background shook social peace.|
|2007||In the fall, John Howard's administration lost the general election. The new prime minister was Labor leader Kevin Rudd, who is bringing Australia back to the world stage from its international isolation at the side of the USA and the Bush administrations. Signing of the climate protection agreement (Kyoto Protocol). Politics is placing more emphasis on environmental protection and the integration of the indigenous people.|
|2008||Prime Minister Kevin Rudd officially apologizes to the Aboriginal People for the kidnapping of an entire generation ("Stolen Generation").|
|2009||In January and February, massive bush fires in the south become one of the greatest tragedies in Australian history. |
Subject page bush fires
Australia is the best country to weather the economic crisis of any OECD country. The country was mainly indirectly affected: Due to the severe crises in the main exporting countries, raw material prices fell temporarily and as a result the Australian dollar reached a historic low against the euro in early 2009. The construction industry experienced a boom thanks to support services for first-time home buyers and the bringing forward of investment projects. The shortage of skilled workers continued.
Around 7,000 British children from socially disadvantaged families and orphanages were shipped to Australia between 1930 and 1967. The official reason was that they wanted to enable the social cases to have a better life. Australia, like other (ex-) colonies, wanted to "freshen up the white race". The children were told that they were going on an adventure vacation. It was not until November 2009 that Prime Minister Kevin Rudd made his historic apology.
|2010||Julia Gillard replaces Kevin Rudd as Prime Minister and after the elections can only govern through a coalition.|
The history of the Australian Aborigines and their current situation
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