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Jan Fabre exhibition in the Hermitage. Jan Fabre: Knight of Despair - Warrior of Beauty

On October 21, the Hermitage Department of Contemporary Art opened the exhibition “Jan Fabre: The Knight of Despair - A Warrior of Beauty” in the Hermitage as part of the Hermitage 20/21 project. The Belgian artist Jan Fabre, one of the greatest masters of contemporary European art, presented 230 works in the Hermitage: graphics, sculptures, installations, films. The exhibition triggered a mixed reaction from the museum visitors, which indicates the unconditional interest of the St. Petersburg public in the author's creative statements. The Hermitage receives letters from museum visitors criticizing Fabre's works and asking them to remove some of the artist's works from the exhibition. We have prepared answers to the most frequently asked questions.

- Why is Fabre exhibited not only in the headquarters, which is already associated with contemporary art, but also in the main museum?

Indeed, the work of Fabre. The idea of ​​presenting Fabre in the Hermitage in dialogue with Flemish masters of the 17th century came about seven years ago when the director of the museum, Mikhail Borisovich Piotrovsky, and Dmitry Ozerkov, head of the contemporary art department, presented Jan Fabre's exhibition at the Visited the Louvre, where the artist's installation was next to the masterpieces Rubens. According to project curator D. Ozerkov, this is not an invasion. Fabre, a modern artist, comes to our museum not to compete with him, but to kneel before the old masters, before beauty. This exhibition is not about Fabre, but about the energy of the Hermitage in its four contexts: paintings by old masters, the history of the buildings, the cradle of the revolution and the place where the kings lived ”(The Art Newspaper Russia).

Photo by Alexander Lavrentiev

The green shimmering compositions of the Belgian, which were created in the genre Vanitas Vanitatum (vanity of the vanities) based on the motif Memento Mori (memory of death), are introduced into the walls of the New Hermitage (Flemish and Dutch painting halls). Jan Fabre is a subtle colorist. In the twelve-column hall he works in the colors of gray marble and decorative gilding. Its precious emerald tablets remind the viewer of the malachite bowls and worktops of the Hermitage and of the furnishings in the malachite living room of the Winter Palace.

Photo by Kirill Ikonnikov

His drawings of the Bic pen are located near the lapis lazuli of the vases of the Great Gaps in the New Hermitage.

The laconic and severe reliefs by Fabre with the "queens" border on the ceremonial portraits of the English noblewoman and court ladies painted by Antonis van Dyck.

Fabra's proximity to Sneijder's "shops" is successful; the contemporary artist does not quote the Flemish master, but only carefully adds the skull motif - the meaning that is obvious to the art historian: the subject of vanity and the vanity of life.

Photo by Valery Zubarov

Fabr himself said at a meeting with Petersburgers in the atrium of the General Staff building that his work in the art halls of Flanders should make audiences "stop taking time for art". "Visitors walk past Rubens like the windows of a large shop, they don't look at the details," says the artist.

- I appeal to all the services of the Hermitage! As a rancher and volunteer, I find it unacceptable to flaunt all ages and a stuffed dog on hooks that is damaging the child's psyche! Jan Fabre's exhibition is cultureless. This is especially immoral given the huge response to livelihood cases in Khabarovsk. Please remove stuffed animals from the exhibition!

Jan Fabre has repeatedly told reporters that the dogs and cats that appear in his installations are stray animals that have died on the streets. Fabre tries to give them a new life in art and thus to conquer death. “Much of my work is dedicated to the afterlife. Death is a part of life, I respect death, ”says the famous Belgian. The dead dog in Fabre's installation is a metaphor, a kind of self-portrait by the artist. Fabre says, "An artist is a stray dog."

Fabre demands respect for animals that have accompanied mankind for centuries and go down in history and mythology. Today's attitude towards animals is consumption. Cats are left in the huts. Old dogs are driven out of the house. Fabre emphasizes cats and dogs in ancient art, showing that they are like humans in all their qualities, and therefore their love and joy, their illness and death are pushed from our thoughts.

Fabre, who showcases stuffed pets, along with animal welfare officials around the world, opposes consumerism.

Often we don't love animals, but our love for them. We call them our little brothers and we often don't understand how cruel they are. We are ready to get rid of them as soon as possible if the animal is sick or old. Jan Fabre is against it. He transforms the carcasses brought down by cars he found along the highways from the waste of consumer society into an accusation of human cruelty.

- Why couldn't Fabre use artificial materials instead of stuffed animals? Modern technologies make them completely indistinguishable from real ones.

"Why marble, not plastic?" Asks Fabre and answers this question at a meeting in the General Staff building. “Marble has a long tradition, Michelangelo, it is a tactilely different material. Material is content. “This thesis by Fabre can be compared with the idea of ​​Russian formalists about the unity of form and content.

For Jan Fabre, “erotic relationships with the material”, a sensual component, are very important. He recalls that Flemish artists were alchemists, using blood and crushing human bones to make paint. The artist sees the body as an "amazing laboratory and battlefield". For him, the body is "something beautiful and very powerful, but at the same time vulnerable." Fabre creates his monks for the installation of "Umbraculum" using bones - hollow "spiritual bodies" of his figures have an "external skeleton", they cannot be injured, they are protected.

Photo by Valery Zubarov

- Scarecrows have no place in the Hermitage, they should be in the Zoological Museum.

The Knight's Hall of the New Hermitage presents horses from the Tsarskoye Selo arsenal of Nicholas I (these are horse skins stretched on a wooden plinth). In the Winter Palace of Peter I (The Desk of Peter the Great) there is a stuffed dog on display, it is an Italian greyhound, one of the emperor's favorites. Her presence at the Hermitage does not seem strange or provocative to visitors, does not cause fear and indignation.

Photo by Valery Zubarov

The artist makes use of this or that means, based on the principle of inner necessity and his own overarching task. A cursory glance is not enough to perceive contemporary art, it requires (from each of us) inner work and mental effort. These efforts are linked to overcoming stereotypes, prejudices, fears, ideological and psychological clichés and religious attitudes. It takes courage and patience, lets us expand the limits of our perception. Contemporary art is something that cannot be fully prepared for. Fabre himself says that his work “is connected with the search for reconciliation and love. Love is the search for intense dialogue and courtesy. "

Photo by Valery Zubarov

Text: Tsibulya Aleksandra, Dmitry Ozerkov

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"Our goal has been achieved, people are talking about protecting animals": Dmitry Ozerkov - about the scandal surrounding stuffed animals at an exhibition in the Hermitage (paper)

Despite protests from ranchers, the museum does not intend to dismantle the exhibition

The exhibition by the Belgian artist Jan Fabre "The Knight of Despair - A Warrior of Beauty", which opened a few days ago in the Hermitage, triggered a wave of outrage on social networks. Disgruntled internet users started the hashtag # of shame, and the management of the state museum had to make statements.

Jan Fabre's exhibition was not only located in the General Staff Building of the Hermitage, which usually houses contemporary art, but also in the Winter Palace. Stuffed dogs, cats and rabbits were put on hooks against the backdrop of paintings by 17th-century Flemish artists. The curators borrowed this idea from the Louvre, where the Belgian's installation was next to Rubens' masterpieces.

Some unprepared visitors were shocked by Fabre's works. Petersburg residents and guests of the northern capital were particularly indignant about the works "The Protest of the Dead Homeless Cats" and "Carnival of the Dead Mixed Breeds". One of the visitors to the exhibition said she was horrified when she and her family saw stuffed animals.

"People went to admire the pictures, and were shocked. They did not sleep all night. Children were shocked by what they saw. In Moscow, the pedophile exhibition was closed hook", - shared their impressions.

Against the background of the resonance with the Khabarovsk Schinder, many found this exhibition inappropriate. "All of Russia is struggling with flayers, such a difficult moment for all of us. The Hermitage spits out an exhibition by Jan Fabre entitled" The Carnival of the Dead Vagabonds! "Straight in the head! Where do we go when IT is now called art ?! There are no words," wrote one of the Internet users.

Despite protests from zoo defenders and claims from visitors, the Hermitage will not dismantle the Belgian artist's installations. "We do not believe that this exhibition violates the rights of animals or those who love them, but quite the opposite," said Dmitry Ozerkov, head of the Museum of Contemporary Art department at Moscow radio station Talking.

"Fabre himself has repeatedly told reporters that the dogs and cats that appear in his installations are homeless animals that have died on the streets. Fabre tries to give them a new life in art and thus defeat death." According to the embassy on the Hermitage website.

An exhibition by the Belgian artist Jan Fabre "The Knight of Despair - A Warrior of Beauty" will open in the Hermitage. Cuddly toys and skulls, a video with a living knight in the knight's hall and paintings made with bic pen - "Paper" He says that they brought to the Winter Palace and the General Staff building, for what a Faber-style carnival will be held in the museum in December, and for what provocative works the Belgian became famous.

The Hermitage shows an artist who became famous, among other things, with a performance with the “World Championship” in male and female masturbation

The 40-year-old Flemish artist is known as a director of theater, opera and dance performances, a performance artist and a writer. The works of the grandson of the famous entomologist Jean-Henri Fabre (important for understanding the work of the artist) often cause shock and controversy among the public and critics.

In 1978 Fabr exhibited pictures painted with blood in the exhibition "My body, my blood, my landscape". Later it thundered all over the world with the project “Sky of Admiration”: The artist adorned the ceiling and the chandelier in the royal palace in Brussels with one and a half million Thai beetles.

Fabre was also the artistic director of the international festival in Athens, staging provocative performances like Orgy of Tolerance that were somehow brought to Moscow. The production begins with the "world championship" in male and female masturbation. There is also a scene in which pregnant women “give birth” to a grocery store range on carts from supermarkets, and much more that an unprepared audience can call obscene.

The first Fabra exhibition in Russia, much less provocative that the Hermitage 20/21 project wanted to show almost from the start, is directed to the other side of the artist's work. In the Hermitage exhibition, Fabre appears as the “warrior of beauty”, and the works brought to St. Petersburg have something in common with the masterpieces of world painting.

The artist himself claims that he became interested in art at the age of 12 after a visit to the Rubens House in Antwerp. In fact, Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens are the main sources of his inspiration. In this direction, the artist and curator of the project, Dmitry Ozerkov, worked at the Hermitage.

Dmitry OzerkovExhibition curator:

This exhibition is different, this is not an invasion. Fabre, a modern artist, comes to our museum not to compete with him, but to kneel before the old masters, before beauty. This exhibition is not about Fabre, but about the energy of the Hermitage in its four contexts: paintings by old masters, the history of the buildings, the cradle of the revolution and the place where the kings lived.

"The Knight of Despair is a Warrior of Beauty" is the largest personal exhibition by a contemporary artist in the Hermitage

More than 200 works by Fabre were brought to Petersburg. Some of them were specially made for the Hermitage. Exhibits exhibited immediately in the Winter Palace, the New Hermitage and the General Staff Building; You have to look among the exhibits in the permanent collection, for example in the halls of Sneijders, Van Dyck and Rubens, in the Knight's Hall and in the Great Court. In the headquarters, the work is presented in such a way that a dialogue can be understood with the “Red Car” by Ilya Kabakov shown here: in three inner courtyards and transformer halls in between.

Perhaps this can be explained by the fact that Jan Fabre inherits the traditions of classic Flemish painting that are so important to the main museum in the country and particularly to the Hermitage 20/21 project. In addition, in the Hermitage, the artist exhibited in the museum must make an exhibition especially for him. Fabr just did such work.

Fabre's works are exhibited as part of the museum's main exhibition

The artist's relationship with the masters of Flemish painting of the past gave rise to an unusual display of Fabr's works. The Flemish paintings, installations and films are exhibited on an equal footing with the Hermitage's permanent collection and, as the museum believes, "enter into a dialogue with recognized masterpieces of world art". Fabre has already tested such an exhibit when he was doing an exhibition in the Louvre. In the Rubens Hall in Paris, tombstones were placed on which there are the vital dates of European scientists, renamed insects.

In addition, Fabre came to the Hermitage in the summer to stroll through the halls of the museum in a knight's armor specially made for him in Belgium, the recording of which can now be seen. In the museum, you can also see the armor made by Fabre, which he wore in collaboration with Marina Abramovich, in the performance of virgin / warrior, as well as armor from beetles.

Despite the moderate provocation of the Hermitage exhibition, visitors already reacted negatively to Fabr's work

Under the photo of one of Jan Fabre's works in the halls of the Hermitage - a stuffed rabbit in the teeth of a human skull - the museum's official Instagram account discussed the appropriateness of such works in the museum.

elena0123450 Do the children see that? !!! 😳🙈 And after that you want a normal child psyche ?!

zheniya_ya Poor animal, what bullshit? Dry the author and place the bunny 👊

ly_uda Fuh, what a disgust ????

mimo__prohodila What kind of can is that? 😱

babavera823 An abomination!

There is a Fabre-style carnival and a 24-hour marathon for the exhibition in the General Staff building

A serious educational program is dedicated to the project "Knights of Despair - Warriors of Beauty". In addition to the meeting with the artist, whose registration is unfortunately already closed, lectures, shows, discussions and panel discussions are held in the General Staff with the participation of critics, art historians, theater workers and musicians. And young artists create a theatrical interpretation based on the works of Fabr.

As part of the annual New Year's program at the Youth Center in the General Staff Building, there is a Fabre-style carnival: a parade with masks and catwalk costumes designed by students.

Shortly before the end of the exhibition, an intellectual marathon will take place on the night of March 31st to April 1st in the same building of the General Staff: The performance show of Olymp Jan Fabre lasts 24 hours.

The exhibition runs until April 9, 2017. Entrance to the main building of the museum - 400 rubles, to the General Staff building - 300 rubles, complex ticket - 600 rubles.

Recommended for 16+. Jan Fabre is one of the most productive and important artists of his generation. He created a series of new works especially for this exhibition, comprising more than 200 works of art.

The carnival giant in Brussels
20.3 x 16.8 cm

© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

The Gilles von Binche in full regalia on Shrove Tuesday
20.3 x 16.8 cm
HB pencil, colored pencil and colored pencils on chrome
© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

The appearance and disappearance of Antwerp I
124 x 165.3 cm
Ballpoint pen (bic) on poly G foil (Bonjet high-gloss white foil 200gr), Dibond
© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

The Appearance and Disappearance of Christ I.
124 x 165.3 cm
Ballpoint pen (bic) on poly G foil (Bonjet High Gloss White foil 200gr), Dibond
© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

The faithful leader of vanity (II / III)
227 x 172 cm

© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

The faithful ecstasy of death
Vanitas vanitatum, Omnia vanitas series
227 x 172 cm
Jewelery beetle wing boxes on wood
© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

Els of Bruges
My queens series
White Carrara marble
200 x 150 x 11.5 cm
© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

Ivana from Zagreb
My queens series
White Carrara marble
200 x 150 x 11.5 cm
© Angelos BVBA / Jan Fabre

Jan Fabre (Antwerp, 1958), visual artist, theater artist and author, speculates loudly and tangibly about life and death, physical and social changes and about the cruel and intelligent imagination that is present in animals and humans.

Jan Fabre has been one of the most innovative and important personalities on the international contemporary art scene for over 35 years. As a visual artist, theater maker and author, he has created a highly personal world with its own rules and laws as well as its own characters, symbols and recurring motifs. Influenced by the research of the entomologist Jean-Henri Fabre (1823-1915), he was fascinated by the world of insects and other living things from an early age. During his studies at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts and at the Municipal Institute for Decorative Arts and Crafts in Antwerp in the late 1970s, he was looking for ways to expand his research to include the human body. His own performances and actions from 1976 to the present day have been essential to his artistic journey. Jan Fabre's language consists of a multitude of materials and is located in a world of its own, populated by bodies that are in balance between the opposites that define natural existence. Metamorphosis is a key concept in every approach to Jan Fabre's ideas, in which human and animal life are in constant interaction. He unfolds his universe through the texts and nocturnal notes of his author, which were published in the volumes of his night diary. As a consilience artist, he has merged performance art and theater. Jan Fabre changed the language of theater by bringing real time and real action to the stage. After his historic eight-hour staging "This is theater as expected" (1982) and the four-hour staging "Die Macht des Theaterwahnsinns" (1984), he took his work to a new level in the extraordinary and monumental "Mount Olympus. To add to the cult of tragedy Glorify a 24 Hour Performance "(2015).

Jan Fabre gained worldwide audience recognition with "Tivoli" (1990) and with constant public works in places of historical importance such as "Heaven of Delight" (2002) at the Royal Palace in Brussels, "The Gaze Within" (The Hour Blue) "(2011 - 2013) in the Royal Staircase of the Museum of Fine Arts in Brussels and his latest installation in the Antwerp Cathedral of" The Man Who Carries the Cross "(2015).

He is known for solo exhibitions such as "Homo Faber" (KMSKA, Antwerp, 2006), "Hortus / Corpus" (Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, 2011) and "Stigmata. Actions and Performances", 1976-2013 (MAXXI, Rome, 2013; M HKA, Antwerp, 2015; MAC, Lyon, 2016). He was the first living artist to present a major exhibition in the Louvre in Paris ("L’ange de la métamorphose", 2008). The well-known series "The Hour Blue" (1977 - 1992) was shown in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna (2011), in the Musée d'Art Moderne in Saint-Etienne (2012) and in the Busan Museum of Art (2013) "The sexiest part of the body", namely the brain, was shown in the solo exhibitions "Anthropology of a Planet" (Palazzo Benzon, Venice, 2007), "From the Cellar to the Attic, From the Feet to the Brain" (Kunsthaus Bregenz, 2008; Arsenale Novissimo, Venice, 2009) and PIETAS "(Nuova Scuola Grande Santa Maria della Misericordia, Venice, 2011; Parkloods Park Spoor Noord, Antwerp, 2012). The two series of mosaics with the wing cases of the jewel scarab" Homage to Hieronymus Bosch in the Congo "(2011-2013) and" Homage to the Belgian Congo "(2010-2013) were shown in the PinchukArtCentre in Kiev (2013) and the Palais des Beaux-Arts in Lille (2013) and will travel in 2016 for the 500th anniversary by Hieronymus Bosch after 's-Hertogenbosch.

As the artist points out and recognized by critics and researchers, his art goes back to the traditions of classical Flemish art, which he admires. Peter Paul Rubens and Jacob Jordaens are important inspirations and visitors will see (or not see) it for themselves. During the duration of the exhibition, Fabre's works will be part of the museum's permanent exhibition and enter into a dialogue with the absolute international masterpieces. The idea for the exhibition came about after Jan Fabre had a large-scale solo exhibition. L "ange de la métamorphose in the areas of Flanders and the Netherlands in the Louvre in 2008.

In the Hermitage Halls, this “sketch” will develop into a major art event that is sure to arouse great interest and many debates that are to take place during another intellectual discussion marathon. The exhibition includes lecture series, master classes and panel discussions. The exhibition will show eight films, including the performance film Love is the Power Supreme (2016) with the artist, which was filmed in the Winter Palace in June 2016. This work remains in the collection of the Hermitage. As the grandson of a famous entomologist, Jan Fabre uses the aesthetics of the animal world. He uses beetle shells, animal skeletons and horns as well as cuddly toys and animal pictures in various materials. The list of unusual materials goes beyond that to cover blood and BIC blue ink.

The exhibition was organized by the Department of Contemporary Art at the Hermitage as part of the Hermitage 20/21 project. It is under the auspices of V St. Petersburg International Cultural Forum.

Jan Fabre (eng. Jan Fabre, p. 1958) - a modern Belgian artist, sculptor and director. His works have been exhibited at the Venice Biennale 1984, 1990, 2003 and the documenta 1987, 1992, among others.

Early biography

Jan Fabre Born in Antwerp, Belgium in 1958. His grandfather was the famous entomologist Jean-Henri Fabre (1823-1915). Graduated from the Municipal Institute of Decorative Arts and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in the 1970s, he then began writing his first theater scripts and creating his first works. In 1977 he "renamed" the street in which he lived to Jan Fabre and placed the sign "Jan Fabre lives and works here" in his apartment. He painted the most striking series of paintings of this time with his own blood ( "My body, my blood, my landscape"1978), arranged the performance of the same name from the process of creation. In the following year the artist again drew attention to himself with the performance "Money". Fabre collected paper banknotes from visitors, after which he began to fold, cut, walk on, etc. At the end of the performance, he burned bills and wrote the word "money" in ashes. The real-money installation of the same name soon appeared. In the same year 1978 Jan Fabre created his first sculpture with the title "I, the Dreaming" (nid. Ik, aan het dromen). This work is a sculptural picture of a scientist with a microscope. The "legs" of the scientist and the table are made of meat.


Jan Fabre is also known for his work, which he used Bic pens to make. These pens were considered the most common, and Fabr himself commented on his choice: “It was cheap and convenient. I could take them anywhere and steal them anywhere. “The idea of ​​using Bic pens is not new and the term Bic-art used not only in relation to the works of Jan Fabre, but within the framework of this "genre", the Belgian artist also managed to propose several original solutions.

In the early 1980s Jan Fabre organized several performances which, under certain conditions, were combined in the series "Ilad der Bic Art" (Ilad Bic-art). Here Ilad is the anonymous of the surname Dali. The most noticeable performance here can be described as "Ilad of Bic Art, Bic Art Room" (Ilad Bic-Art, Bic-Art Room). Fabre locked himself in a room where everything was white for three days and three nights (including all of the dishes and clothes of the artist himself) and he only had bic pens. In 1990 Fabre presented his new Tivoli project. The artist painted the entire mansion with just ballpoint pens.

Performances and Performances

Jan Fabre often turns to the theater in his work. His first major production was called "This is the theater as expected and as planned" (1982). For the 1984 Venice Biennale he prepared the play "The Power of Theater Nonsense", in which the actors had to beat each other and themselves. In 1986 Jan Fabre founded Troubleyn, an art group that deals with theater productions. Fabre himself calls this project the performance laboratory of the 21st century.

In 2015 Jan Fabre presented his grandiose production to the audience "Olympus" ("Olympus"). Official slogan: "To the glory of the cult of tragedy, 24-hour performance" (To the glory of the cult of tragedy, 24-hour performance). The action lasted 24 hours and 27 artists from the Troubleyn group were involved. The performance was well received by the public and was repeated in Antwerp in 2016 (January 30-31) (the performance was broadcast live by the French television channel CultureBox). In addition, "Mount Olympus" has been shown in many countries in Europe and Israel.


Jan Fabre began creating his first sculptures as early as the 1980s. From a conceptual point of view, there are three main themes that are characteristic of the Fabra sculptor: the insect world, the human body and war strategy.

In 2002 Fabre created a series of works entitled "Heaven of Admiration" (Heaven of Joy). With the help of nearly a million and a half elytra Thai beetles, the artist painted the ceiling and central chandelier in the Hall of Mirrors of the royal palace in Brussels. Perhaps this is a reference to Michelangelo's fresco in the Sistine Chapel in Rome. The work was commissioned by the Queen of Belgium Paola.

Jan Fabre created a number of sculptures, the conceptual meaning of which can be discussed. In addition, many of them are made in multiple copies and are in different places, each taking on a new meaning due to the external environment. For example, "Man who Measuring the Clouds" was first published in Ghent in 1998. In the same year the same sculpture was installed at Brussels Airport and in 2004 in Antwerp, the artist's hometown.

In 2008 an exhibition was held in the Louvre under the general title "Jan Fabre in the Louvre: Angel of Transformation" (Jan Fabre in the Louvre: The Angel of Transformation). "Foreign" elements from Fabre have been introduced into the museum space. His works have been pieced together with the classical works of the masters of the past and, in some ways, supplemented with the introduction of elements of chaos and new semantic models available for interpretation. In the years 2016-2017 Jan Fabre organized together with the Hermitage ( "Jan Fabre: Knight of Despair - Warrior of Beauty") Fabre's work in taxidermy is mixed in public. The scandal prompted the artist to use stuffed animals and their presence on the walls of a museum such as the Hermitage. In the St. Petersburg Diocese of the Russian Orthodox Church, for example, it was said that "such an exhibition should not have taken place in the Hermitage" and the exhibition itself "looks rather shameful". At the same time, Sergei Schnurow commented on the exhibition: “I went to the Hermitage in Fabra. And what I saw there: complex but readable rhymes, delicate integration, and even awe of old masters, which, frankly, are rare. I did not see it. I saw neither livelihood nor bullying of people there, but the other way around. In my opinion, the provocativity of the exhibition of "Free Fighters for Culture" was grossly exaggerated and the artistic merits went completely unnoticed by them. "