Which species besides humans are still developing?
Chimpanzee in the species dictionary
Chimpanzees stand next to the bonobosour closest relatives They are even more closely related to us than to gorillas and orangutans. Among the great apes, they are one of the smaller species. The males are slightly larger and significantly more massive than the females.
Chimpanzees live in hierarchically organized, mixed-sex so-called Fission Fusion Communities. These consist of several males and females as well as some offspring. Depending on the situation, they split up into smaller groups. The males must have their own social rank fight hard, steadily assert it and dominate over the females. The highest ranking male will Alpha male called.
The members of a chimpanzee community behave solidarity, helpful and caring towards the others. For example, when a chimpanzee child is orphaned, it is often adopted and lovingly raised over many years, although from an evolutionary point of view this does not bring any advantages for the adoptive parents, who are often unrelated. Mutual grooming serves to strengthen social bonds in the group. The ritual can last several hours a day. With help and support, chimpanzees can gain the favor of another community member. The revenge often takes place with a time delay and in the form of a Barter of different "goods and services", for example meat for sex, instead. Neighboring communities compete for females and food and fight each other in encounters.
Although fruit make up the largest proportion of their diet, they eat more flesh than other great apes. On the menu of the Omnivores there are more than 30 species of mammals, including mainly smaller monkeys. Often times, chimpanzees hunt in well-coordinated groups with assigned roles.
The biggest threats to chimpanzees today are Poaching, habitat loss and Diseases as Climate change and Conflicts between humans and animals. Population growth in the countries where it spreads, poverty and corruption, often poor law enforcement and inadequate penal systems all contribute to the severe endangerment of our relatives.
The chimpanzee in the profile
|habitat||dense lowland rainforests, mountain forests, swamp forests, secondary forests, gallery forests and dry forests at altitudes of up to almost 3,000 meters|
|Geographical distribution||from Senegal to Tanzania and Uganda across a total of 21 West, Central and East African countries|
|Endangerment status||According to the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), chimpanzees are generally considered to be "critically endangered" and the West African subspecies even as "critically endangered"|
|Stock size||181,000 to 256,000 East African chimpanzees (2010, 2014), around 128,700 Central African chimpanzees (2018), 15,000 to 65,000 West African chimpanzees (2017), maximum 6,000 to 9,000 Nigeria chimpanzees (2011, 2015)|
Where are chimpanzees classified in the zoological system?
Of orders, families and species
The Common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mostly just chimpanzee called, belongs to the family of Great apes and to the order of the Primates. Together with the gibbons and the vervet monkey relatives, the great apes form the group of Old world monkeys. The Old and New World monkeys are the two kinship groups of the monkeys, which in turn, together with the Koboldmakis, are subordinate to the Dry-nosed monkeys form. The dry-nosed monkeys belong next to the wet-nosed monkeys to the mammalian order of primates. The great ape family today is divided into four genera with seven species: Chimpanzee, bonobo, western gorilla, eastern gorilla, Sumatran orangutan, Bornean orangutan, and human. The two types of chimpanzee and bonobo belong to the genus of chimpanzees. The two chimpanzee species are the closest relatives of humans. The relationship between the chimpanzee genus and us humans is greater than that with the other great apes.
Be among the chimpanzees four subspecies differentiated: West African chimpanzee (P. t. verus), Central African chimpanzee (P. t. troglodytes), East African chimpanzee (P. t. schweinfurthii) and Nigerian chimpanzee (P. t. ellioti).
What do chimpanzees look like?
Features, properties and special features
Chimpanzees are one of them smaller great ape species. With them, the males are slightly larger and significantly more massive than the females. The head-torso length is up to in males 96 centimeters and in females up to 91 centimeters. Standing they reach a size of around 1.2 meters. Males weigh about 28 to 70 kilograms and females 20 to 50 kilograms.
Chimpanzees appear robust and sporty. They have a rounded head, a muscular body and long limbs, whereby, as with all great apes except humans, the arms are longer than the legs. As with most monkeys, the big toes of the feet can be opposed, analogous to the thumbs. Because of this, the feet can be called so-called Gripping feet can be used. The hair of the chimpanzees covers the head and body, is black and can turn gray on the back, bottom and chin of both males and females with age. In addition, females in particular can become bald over time.
The Face, ears, soles of hands and feet as well as the anogenital region glabrous and mostly flesh-colored. The face becomes darker over the years. Chimpanzees only very rarely have very dark, almost black faces. Both males and females often have a short white beard in old age. The chimpanzee face is flat with a bulging jawline and dark lips. There are bony thickenings of the frontal bone above the eyes, the so-called bulges above the eyes. The large ears protrude from the hair on the head. Chimpanzees have one pronounced facial expressions. This is that of very similar to us humans and differs mainly in one greater mobility of the lips and less development of the muscles on the forehead.
Chimpanzees are very good climbers. Like the other African great apes, they typically move on the ground four-footed in the so-called ankle gait away. They occur at the back with the entire sole of the foot, while the front fingers are curved into an open fist and only the middle phalanges and the ankles touch the ground. In the meantime, chimpanzees are standing too like upright and can short distances on two legs to run. If the water isn't too deep, they wade through - but they can do not swim.
The Central African are considered to be the largest chimpanzees, especially the males. Often the chimpanzees differ more within the same subspecies than there are differences between chimpanzees of different subspecies. Chimpanzees are also their closest relative, the Bonobos confusingly similar. There are few body features that differentiate them. However, while both species are almost the same size, their body proportions differ. Chimpanzees have proportionally longer arms, shorter legs and a stronger torso than bonobos. The head of the chimpanzee is more oval, the face more bony and the mouth area protrudes more forward. So their face looks coarser and more angular than that of the bonobos. In addition, chimpanzees mostly have a flesh-colored face with dark lips in contrast to the black face of bonobos with red lips.
The social organization, activity and communication
Chimpanzees live in mixed-sex so-called fission fusion communitiesformed by multiple males and females as well as offspring. The number of members of a community can between twelve and 150 chimpanzees vary and is average 35 members. The community is regularly divided into smaller groups. These small groups number between two and 20 animals and are composed differently depending on the situation. It is assumed that the intraspecific competition for food is reduced if the chimpanzees occasionally search for food in smaller groups in fewer numbers.
With the chimpanzees they are Male dominant. There is also one each among the males and females in a community gender-specific linear ranking. The ranking of the males is strictly hierarchical. The social rank of a male is hard won and has to be asserted steadily. The highest ranking male is the so-called Alpha male. In contrast to the females, the males in a community are often related to one another, develop strong bonds with other selected males, form coalitions and cooperate, among other things, in hunting, territory patrols and disputes. Allied males strengthen one another in asserting or improving their rank. Higher ranking males behave dominantly towards non-allied and lower ranking males. In most regions of the range the chimpanzees are the majority of the males are involved in conflictswhich can be fatal both within a community and between neighboring communities. In individual study areas it was also observed that the females also participate at least vocal in disputes at territorial boundaries.
The female of a community are usually not related to each other. Their ranking is less pronounced. They are also considered to be less sociable and, above all, form units within the community with their own offspring. The social behavior of the females shows some differences in the different regions of the chimpanzee distribution area. Individual studies have shown, for example, that the females stay away from the males in certain phases of life in order to avoid attacks and attacks. In some regions of the range, the intra-specific competition among females for space and food is so great that higher-ranking females even kill the children of lower-ranking or newly immigrated females. Males show less aggressive behavior towards newly immigrated females in swelling (see chapter on reproduction), while the resident females behave very aggressively and violently towards the newcomers in order to chase the competitors out of the group for space and food as much as possible.
The social bonds among the chimpanzees are established through regular, so-called Grooming consolidated. Grooming is mutual Grooming and a ritual which several hours a day can take advantage of. Through committed Louse, support in disputes, that Sharing of food etc. the chimpanzees can “buy” the favor of a community member. The revenge often takes place with a time delay and in the form of a Barter instead of. Both males and females trade with different "goods and services". For example, males exchange meat for sex.
Chimpanzees have the ability to empathize. The members of the communities behave in solidarity, helpful and caring towards others. When a chimpanzee orphan is orphaned, it is often adopted by a member of the community, regardless of family, and raised lovingly for years. From an evolutionary point of view, the adoptions do not bring any advantages for the adoptive parents and only pay off in the case of male orphans in terms of group size.
Chimpanzees are known for their extremely skillful and versatile use of tools. In addition to them, there are many other animals that use tools, but the use of tools to achieve a certain objective and to change the environment according to certain ideas is impressive in humans and great apes. With the exception of humans, chimpanzees are considered to be the most inventive in using their tools compared to the other great ape species. Scientists have shown that chimpanzees' tool use is a cultural tradition corresponds to. It doesn't happen instinctively, but rather is learned. The information is passed on from generation to generation. The use of tools by chimpanzees is known in the following situations: for food procurement, defense, communication, environmental exploration, hygiene and comfort. Often the Tools made in-house. Sometimes several tools are used one after the other in a situation. At the Ants fishing For example, the chimpanzees get a twig, work it until it is the right length and hold it directly into the ant burrow. As soon as some of the ants have bitten into it, they transport their prey from the branch directly into their mouths.
Another example is the use of homemade sponges from chewed leaves to soak up water in tree hollows that cannot be reached by mouth. When the sponge is soaked, it is sucked out with the mouth. To protect against a leopard attack, chimpanzees put Sticks as weapons a. Overall, chimpanzees are even able to flexibly apply different strategies for using tools. In the Ivory Coast, for example, chimpanzees crack nuts with hammers. Some chimpanzees adapt the choice of hammer material to the hardness of the nuts as the season progresses. If the nuts become less hard, use wooden hammers instead of stone hammers. In addition, they can transfer a certain tool usage to different situations. It is assumed that the competition for food with gorillas, with whom they share large parts of their range and whose food spectrum strongly overlaps with theirs, is a cause of the Use of tools in chimpanzees has shown. By developing innovative feeding strategies, chimpanzees can consume more foods that are not directly accessible to gorillas. Compared to bonobos, chimpanzees seem to be slightly superior in physical skills, but have slightly lower social skills.
Overall, the various subspecies and communities of chimpanzees show clear differences in their way of life, their behavior and their cultural traditions. For example, the West African chimpanzees are considered more peaceful and less male dominated than the other subspecies. For this, some East African chimpanzees hardly use any tools to obtain food. This suggests a generally high level of cognitive flexibility and adaptability.
The natural enemies of the chimpanzees include above all Leopards. There is food competition in particular with gorillas. In the high season it happens that both species feed peacefully next to each other. If there is a shortage of food, however, they drive each other away, with one or the other prevailing depending on the size of the group.
The Territories of the chimpanzees are seven depending on the type of habitat up to 65 square kilometers in size and are strictly defended against neighboring groups of chimpanzees. The males point to theirs regular patrols Presence. Neighboring communities compete for females and food sources in the border area and fight each other in encounters. When young females leave their birth group, they prefer to join large groups with numerous males. This is probably the reason why males from different communities are often killed during fighting on the territorial boundaries. This reduces the number of males in the competing community. It is believed that this may expand the territory, make the community more attractive to immigrating young females, and ultimately give the males of the stronger group greater access to females. This, in turn, can result in greater reproductive success. Nevertheless, it sometimes happens that closely related females from neighboring communities visit each other peacefully.
Chimpanzees are diurnal and live both in the Trees as well as on ground. Research shows that female chimpanzees spend around 60 percent of the day in the trees and 40 percent on the ground. It is the other way around with males. Chimpanzees spend about that half a day with food intake. In search of food and places to sleep, they cover an average of two to three kilometers a day. To sleep, they build a new one every evening Nest in the trees, whereby they prefer certain tree species for this. In some regions of the range they occasionally sleep in nests on the ground. Chimpanzees have excellent spatial memories. They use one for orientation mental map, which lists thousands of their favorite fruit trees, which they then visit directly depending on the season.
What is known about chimpanzee reproduction?
From mating through the development of the young to adulthood
In the case of chimpanzees, the males and females come along for example seven to eight years into puberty. Until the age of about 15 years the males reach the full Puberty. The females usually get around the age of 13 to 14 years of age their first offspring. Chimpanzees are promiscuous. The willingness of the females to mate is indicated by a cycle-dependent, hormone-related swelling and pink coloration of the genitals, as is the case with bonobos. In the swelling, the females mate particularly frequently and with several sexual partners in the community. They can not always choose freely, but are sometimes made docile by the males through aggressive behavior. The males' ability to mate depends on their social rank. The alpha male has priority and is the father of an average of half of the young in the community. Swollen females trigger an increase in the level of testosterone in the blood of the males. This in turn increases the willingness to behave aggressively towards competing males and unwilling females and ultimately maximizes the males' mating and reproductive success.
After a Gestation period of just under eight months comes mostly a single cub to the world. Twins are rare. The births take place all year round. As with all great apes, the bond between mother and child is very intimate. The young are completely dependent on the loving care of their mothers. The fathers do not take part in raising their children. In the first weeks of life, the females carry their offspring on their belly, then on their back. Chimpanzee infants are suckled for four to five years. The mothers share their sleeping nests with their young until they are weaned or the next offspring is expected. The chimpanzee mortality rate is around 70 percent. Just under a third reaches adulthood. The success of rearing depends on the mother's social rank. The higher up a female is, the greater the likelihood that she will be able to bring her young through. If the young are successfully raised, a female will have the next offspring after four and a half to seven years. You can have children up to the age of forty.
In chimpanzees there are cases of Infanticide known. Some males kill offspring that are not related to them and are still dependent on their mothers. Soon after infanticide, the females are ready to conceive again and mate, often with the male who killed their child. Ultimately, the infanticide increases the reproductive success of the males but decreases that of the mothers. That is why they disguise paternity through promiscuity, provoke the fact that several males consider themselves the possible father and thus reduce the risk of their offspring falling victim to infanticide.
Many years pass before the young animals become independent. In the puberty the young females leave the community and join a new one. The young males, on the other hand, remain in the same group for life and have to fight for a place in the hierarchy as soon as they are sexually mature. It is exactly the other way around for most other old world monkeys that live socially.
Their area of distribution then and now
Chimpanzees are the most common of the great apes. Their distribution area extends in western equatorial Africa from Senegal to Tanzania and Uganda over a total of 21 countries and has a total area of more than 2.6 million square kilometers.
The West African chimpanzees live in the western part of the range. They occur in the countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Republic of Liberia, Senegal and Sierra Leone. In Gambia they are definitely already and in Benin, Burkina Faso and Togo they are probably extinct. In the case of a chimpanzee population in western Nigeria, it has not yet been clarified whether they belong to the subspecies of the West African or Nigerian chimpanzees.
The Nigerian chimpanzee occurs in the two countries Nigeria and Cameroon and has the smallest range of the four subspecies. The Sanaga River in Cameroon limits the range of Nigerian chimpanzees in the south. South of the Sanaga and north of the Congo River, the distribution area of the Central African chimpanzee extends over the countries Equatorial Guinea, Cabinda (Angolan exclave), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo and Central African Republic. The Ubangi River separates the ranges of the Central African Chimpanzees, which occur west of the river, and the East African Chimpanzees, which live in the eastern part of the range of the chimpanzees. The East African chimpanzees are found in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and the Central African Republic. The region of the Western Rift of the East African Rift west of Lake Victoria is an important refuge for this subspecies.
During the range of the chimpanzee largely overlaps with that of the gorillas, it is by the Congo River clearly separated from that of the bonobos. Scientists suspect that some of the common ancestors of the chimpanzees and bonobos may have crossed the Congo during a drought around a million years ago and that the two species have evolved separately on the two sides of the river.
In which habitat do chimpanzees occur?
Chimpanzees inhabit different habitats of the Tropical forest belt of Africa, including dense lowland rainforests, mountain forests, swamp forests, secondary forests. Chimpanzees are very adaptable and can survive in areas with high agricultural land, as long as they can find enough food. In the adjacent savannah they also occur in gallery and dry forests. In West Africa chimpanzees can be found up to altitudes of around 1,600 meters, in Nigeria and Cameroon up to altitudes of around 2,000 meters, in Central Africa up to altitudes of almost 750 meters and in East Africa even at altitudes of almost 3,000 meters.
How do chimpanzees feed?
Everything about their food and diet
Chimpanzees are Omnivores and feed on whatever they can find. Make most of their food fruit which, however, are only available seasonally in large parts of their distribution area. There are also leaves, stems, seeds, flowers, tree bark, plant pulp, honey, mushrooms, resin, algae, eggs and meat. The range of prey includes animals from insects up to medium-sized Mammals. In total, there are over 30 species of mammals on their menu, including mainly monkeys such as the red colobus monkey. So you have that largest share of animal food in their diet compared to the other great apes. The chimpanzees use various methods of hunting, including coordinated group hunting with assigned roles. Meat is mainly procured by the males, with allied males often hunting together. If the hunt is successful, the prey is shared with the other, mostly related community members. Chimpanzees that live near settlements and agriculture also make use of fields and plantations. As a result, they can cause major crop failures.
Chimpanzees often make it easier for themselves to procure food Use of tools. In the Ivory Coast, for example, they crack nuts with the help of a hammer and anvil. Stones or wooden clubs serve as a hammer and stone blocks or hard tree roots as an anvil. Another example is the capturing of small tree-living primates in Senegal, those of chimpanzees with pointed sticks as spears be impaled in their tree hollows. Overall, there are great differences in food, food gathering techniques, hunting methods and tool use in the different regions of the range and in the different communities of chimpanzees.
Chimpanzees play like the other African great apes as well "Gardener of the Rainforest" play an important role in their ecosystem in central Africa. For example, the spread and survival of some plants depend on chimpanzees sowing them by distributing seeds based on their diet. As a result, they contribute to the constant regeneration of the rainforest.
How many chimpanzees are there?
Their existence in the past, present and future
The last official information on the total number of chimpanzees comes from the year 2003 and is out of date today. At that time the total population was estimated at 173,000 to 300,000 animals. In the meantime, the four subspecies have been further investigated. The most common subspecies is therefore the East African chimpanzee, followed by the Central and West African chimpanzee. The rarest subspecies is the Nigeria chimpanzee.
In the year 2010 became the total population of the East African Chimpanzee on 181,000 to 256,000 animals estimated. The majority of the East African chimpanzees, namely 173,000 to 248,000, are believed to be in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Another 5,000 or so East African chimpanzees are said to live in Uganda, fewer than 2,500 in Tanzania, more than 400 in Rwanda and fewer than 400 in Burundi. There are currently no population figures for the populations in South Sudan and the Central African Republic.
The total stock of Central African chimpanzee is according to the latest research from the year 2018 on about 128,700 animals estimated. Around 40 percent of them live in the Republic of the Congo, around a third are based in Gabon and around 17 percent are in Cameroon. Several thousand Central African chimpanzees are suspected in Equatorial Guinea and several hundred in the Central African Republic. The majority of the Central African chimpanzees live outside and just under a fifth within protected areas. There are currently no population figures for the populations in the Angolan exclave of Cabinda and in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The total population of the West African chimpanzee includes, according to the latest research, between 15,000 and 65,000 animals. It is believed that there are actually likely to be around 35,000 West African chimpanzees. This means that around 80 percent of the population of this subspecies was lost between 1990 and 2014. The main distribution areas in West Africa are in Guinea, the Republic of Liberia and Sierra Leone. Guinea is currently home to around 17,700 West African chimpanzees. According to the results of herd surveys from 2014, there are more than 7,000 animals in the Republic of Liberia. Census in Sierra Leone in 2010 found a population size of 3,100 to 10,400 West African chimpanzees. In 2008, only 1,000 to 2,000 chimpanzees were counted on the Ivory Coast. This means that between 1990 and 2007 she lost around 90 percent of her chimpanzee population. It is estimated that there are a few hundred animals each in Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Senegal. There is currently no precise information about the stocks in Mali.
Of the rare Nigeria chimpanzees there is an estimated maximum 6,000 to 9,000 animals. According to research published in 2015, there are 3,000 to 4,500 Nigerian chimpanzees in Cameroon.
Are Chimpanzees Endangered?
Your endangerment and protection status
According to the Red List of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), chimpanzees are considered to be endangered and the West African subspecies even as threatened with extinction. They are listed in Appendix I of the Washington Convention for the Protection of Species. Any international, commercial trade is therefore prohibited. They are also protected under national law in all 21 distribution countries may not be caught, killed or traded become.
There is a large one in the chimpanzee distribution countries growth of population, much poverty, corruption, often one weak law enforcement and an inadequate prison system. In 2016, these nations were ranked between ranks 109 and 188 out of 188 on the Human Development Index, an indicator of prosperity by the United Nations. The greatest threats to chimpanzees are today poaching, Habitat loss and Diseases as Climate change and Conflicts between humans and animals. Due to the low reproductive rate, the long phase of dependence of the young on their mothers and the late sexual maturity, chimpanzees, like all great apes, can only slowly compensate for population losses.
The animals in the African forests are considered to be one in many regions important source of food for the local population. But since then the so-called Bush meat is no longer only used for self-sufficiency, but is also transported to the cities and sold there, the hunt is no longer sustainable. The commercialization of the bushmeat trade has meanwhile led to the fact that in large parts of the Central and West African forests there are almost no large and medium-sized vertebrates. In search of prey, the hunters penetrate into ever more remote areas. Clearance concessions, which were granted in the last quarter of a century for a large part of the unprotected forest areas in the range of chimpanzees, and mining are factors that reinforce the bushmeat problem.
On the one hand, the workers on site like to eat bushmeat and on the other hand, the chimpanzee habitats, which were previously remote, are criss-crossed by a network of roads, which also make it easier for poachers to access and remove bushmeat. Although chimpanzees are under protection, they too are hunted, sold and eaten as bushmeat. Sometimes they are hunted directly. Most of the time, however, the poachers are probably not targeting Chimpanzee hunting, but as opportunists hunt everything that can be found. Chimpanzees are a lure for poachers because they have more meat to them than most other potential prey animals. But there are also accidents in which chimpanzees get caught in the Traps and snares that are actually designed for other animals. If the chimpanzees manage to free themselves from such a trap or snare, they face fatal infections or residual physical disabilities such as a severed hand or a missing foot. Market studies in southeast Nigeria in 2002 and 2003 revealed 240 poached chimpanzees in six months and 74 carcasses in one month in the Republic of Liberia in 2015.
The Bushmeat trade however, it is not the only reason chimpanzee hunting is illegal. Your body parts are also in the Traditional medicineused. Although the Live animal trade is prohibited, there is also one in some regions Black market for live great apes, especially for chimpanzees. They become illegal as a exotic pets sold or ended up in the entertainment industry like private zoos, circuses and theme parks. Young animals in particular are tourist attractions and popular accessories for photo sessions. According to a 2015 study by the organization GRASP, over 1,800 great apes captured for trade, including at least 643 chimpanzees, were found between 2005 and 2011. But that's only the tip of the iceberg. Experts estimate that more than 22,000 great apes were actually caught in Africa and Asia during this period, and an average of 2,021 chimpanzees per year. There is a complex one Cross-country and continental network of poachers, smugglers and traders. In the period between 2007 and 2012, for example, 130 chimpanzees with forged papers were exported from Guinea to China. Allegedly, the great apes should come from offspring in human care. However, there is not a single such facility in Guinea. Almost 1,000 confiscated chimpanzees are currently being cared for in the sanctuary.
Another major cause of the decline in chimpanzee populations is Disease epidemics On the one hand, chimpanzees can attack natural pathogens such as Ebola fever get sick. But also human-borne diseases such as respiratory infections and intestinal diseaseswhich are harmless in humans, can be fatal for chimpanzees. Ebola fever in particular has killed many great apes in Central Africa in recent years. It is estimated that in some areas in Gabon and the Republic of the Congo, up to 90 percent of the chimpanzee and gorilla populations have been killed by Ebola since the 1990s.Ebola fever is highly contagious and can wipe out large parts of the population within a few weeks or months. In good conditions, the chimpanzees would need around 100 years to recover from their previous losses. Since the Ebola virus still exists in the chimpanzee distribution area, a new epidemic of the disease can occur at any time. For a few years now, too anthrax has been identified as a leading cause of death in chimpanzees. Advancing into natural areas and increasing contact with people through bushmeat hunting as well as through research, tourism and sanctuary increases the risk of disease transmission.
Chimpanzees are originally found in more or less remote natural areas. But these get through the increasing population as well as under increasing pressure from economic interests. In Cameroon, for example, the population roughly quadrupled between 1950 and 2010. It is further assumed that by 2035 it will double again compared to 2010. By Slash and burn traditionally agricultural land is obtained for subsistence farming. This is how the chimpanzees become you in the entire area of distribution Habitat converted bit by bit into arable land. In West Africa, more than four fifths of the forest has been lost in this way since the beginning of the millennium. Recently, Africa has also moved into the focus of industrial agriculture. Large parts of the range of the chimpanzees offer excellent conditions for the cultivation of oil palms, rubber, eucalyptus and sugar cane on a large scale. Corresponding activities in the agricultural industry could increase very quickly massive habitat loss for the chimpanzees lead outside of protected areas.
Other conflict issues are Logging, mining and oil production in the range of chimpanzees. For example, selective logging removes important food trees from the chimpanzees, which can have a major impact on their way of life. The infrastructure associated with the industry in turn leads, among other things, to the fragmentation of the distribution area through traffic routes, the settlement of workers, the facilitation and increase of the bushmeat trade, an increasing risk of disease transmission, etc. When communities of chimpanzees are driven out of their territories and they are forced into neighboring territories to avoid, this triggers severe fighting among chimpanzees, with many deaths.
The increasing proximity of humans and chimpanzees and the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural land often lead to so-calledHuman-wildlife conflicts. The cultivation of cocoa, oil palms, mangoes, pineapples, and bananas attracts chimpanzees who Plundering fields and plantations over and over again. To protect the harvest, be Chimpanzees sometimes killed as a precaution, for example with poison. It also comes to Revenge killings on chimpanzeesif they were caught stealing. Conflicts between chimpanzees and humans have been increasing recently, especially in West Africa.
Another threat factor that has not yet been assessed much is that Climate change. It is assumed, for example, that the increasing drought in some regions of the chimpanzee range can lead to negative changes such as lower food availability, an increasing risk of forest fires and even forest decline.
The protection of species has been a major issue for the WWF for decades. Chimpanzees, like gorillas, bonobos, orangutans, polar bears, rhinos, elephants, giant pandas and other species are among the flagship species of the WWF. The WWF is active worldwide in numerous projects for the protection and research of threatened species and has already achieved a great deal.
More information on chimpanzees
- Chimpanzees: Our Endangered Relatives
Chimpanzee populations have decreased dramatically. The reasons for this are: deforestation, poaching and the illegal trade in their meat (bushmeat). Continue reading ...
- Congo Basin
The biodiversity of the region is unique: the Congo rainforests are home to over 400 species of mammals, more than 1,000 bird species and probably over 10,000 plant species. Continue reading ...
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