Brandeis University is a third class university
Music review in "Rolling Stone". Jon Landau, Marcus Greil and Lester Bangs
1.1 American music magazines in the late 1960s
1.2 The Rolling Stone Magazine
1.3 The "Rock Ideology"
1.3.3 Rock 'n' Roll
1.3.4 Folk music
1.3.5 British art schools
1.3.6 Commercial Aspects
2. Evaluation of the qualitative content analysis
2.1 Jon Landau
2.1.2 Writing style
2.1.3 Structure of the reviews
2.1.4 Positive and negative evaluation criteria
2.1.5 Relation to "rock ideology"
2.2 Greil Marcus
2.2.2 Writing style
2.2.3 Structure of the review
2.2.4 Positive and negative evaluation criteria
2.2.5 Relation to "rock ideology"
2.3 Lester Bangs
2.3.2 Writing style
2.3.3 Structure of the reviews
2.3.4 Positive and negative evaluation criteria
2.3.5 Relation to "rock ideology"
5. List of sources
Appendix 1: Codebook
Appendix 2.1: Summary
Appendix 2.2: Explication
Appendix 2.3: Structure
Appendix 3: List of reviewed albums
Appendix 4.1: Reviews - Jon Landau
Appendix 4.2: Reviews - Greil Marcus
Appendix 4.3: Reviews - Lester Bangs
You're probably wondering what we are trying to do. It's hard to say: sort of a magazine and sort of a newspaper. The name of it is ROLLING STONE, which comes from an old saying: "A Rolling Stone gathers no moss." Muddy Waters used the name for a song he wrote; The Rolling Stones took their name from Muddy's song and "Like A Rolling Stone" was the title of Bob Dylan's first rock and roll record.
We have begun a new publication reflecting what we see are the changes in rock and roll and the changes related to rock and roll. Because the trade papers have become so inaccurate and irrelevant, and because the fan magazines are an anachronism, fashioned in the mold of myth and nonsense, we hope that we have something here for the artists and the industry, and every person who “believes in the magic that can set you free. "
ROLLING STONE is not just about music, but also about the things and attitudes that the music embraces. We've been working quite hard on it and we hope you can dig it. To describe it any further would be difficult without sounding like bullshit, and bullshit is like gathering moss.
- Jann Wenner1
The second half of the 1960s marked a significant period for the development of pop culture. Student movements in America and Europe take place here, the hippie movement is formed in Los Angeles and popular music is inexorably moving in new directions. It is not surprising that at this time modern music magazines were founded that want to meet the new needs of young people and report on the musical events of their time. One of those magazines is this Rolling Stone Magazine.
The present work focuses on three authors who started their careers in this magazine: Jon Landau, Greil Marcus and Lester Bangs. You are still one of the most important rock critics of the 20th and 21st centuries2. The aim of this thesis is to select a selection of your texts from the Rolling Stone Magazine (between 1967 and 1970) to examine their individual writing types and to show their (music) ideological location. The selected texts are the journalistic form of the (album) review.
In a review (often also a criticism), the level of personal experience is usually in the foreground. This results in various possibilities for a dramaturgical design. A review is usually judgmental and therefore contains certain functions: Orienting the audience about a cultural offer, decision-making aids, understanding the art object or acting didactically or sanctioning the artists. In general, it can be stated that the review reflects an art object in public (i.e. in a medium). It has social, communicative and aesthetic functions. A certain distance can be expected from the reviewer, but this is by no means always given due to the subjective character of the review. An important point of discussion is therefore the question of the standards of values that are to be dealt with in this thesis.3
Qualitative content analysis appears to be a suitable method for such an investigation, which is to be explained in detail below in order to be able to understand the work process of this work in detail.
Ole Holsti and Klaus Merten formulate three goals that can be pursued with this method.4 This work focuses on (A) description and structural comparison, in which syntactic and semantic features or structures of media messages are recorded and described and (B) inferences about the communicator, the features and strategies, but also conclusions on the cultural context . (C) Conclusions on audiences and effects, for which extensive reception research has to be carried out, is not provided by this work.
According to Heinz Bonfadelli, there are nine criteria that must be met to ensure the quality of a content analysis.5 First, (1) the hypotheses that are to be verified or falsified with the content analysis must not only be explicitly formulated, but also specified on the basis of theoretical assumptions. The following three hypotheses were set up for this work:
I. The three authors refer in their texts to aspects of the "rock ideology".
II. The texts of the three authors differ in terms of their semantic and pragmatic levels.
III. The three authors set different priorities in their evaluation criteria for the quality of music.
The theoretical assumption that led to these hypotheses can be justified hermeneutically: When the selected texts were received, initially without a scientific method, the impression arose that the three authors presented their individual opinions in different approaches. A background research on the individual persons showed that they come from different cultures (within the USA) and therefore bring different qualities to their work. The musical backgrounds of the authors also show differences. Individual aspects became clearer when the texts were received a second time. Further research into the term “rock ideology” revealed similarities in the texts. The three hypotheses that have been established can be derived from these steps, which are now to be analyzed using a clean methodical approach.
Furthermore, it should be clarified how (2) the examination system is to be defined. This work is an explanatory study that covers the period between 1967 and 1970 inclusive. It is multi-thematic in terms of the three formulated hypotheses and intramedial, since all texts are from the American Rolling Stone Magazine come. The media reality (point C according to Holsti and Merten) is not related to everyday reality.
The (3) code book, i.e. the underlying system of categories, is precisely described and illustrated with examples from the material examined (see Appendix 1). For the analysis, a (4) standardized code sheet is created that is used in the same way for all texts. The individual categories are independent of one another, one-dimensional and clearly selectable. In this way, they guarantee mutual exclusivity, which is essential for a clear and valid category system. The work “Journalistic Quality of Music Critics” by Christoph Griessner, which should be mentioned explicitly at this point, served as an excellent orientation aid for the category system used here.6 One (5) pre-test was held in advance with the lyrics "Jimi Hendrix and Eric Clapton: A Consideration of 1967 Trios" by Jon Landau, "The Velvet Underground" by Lester Bangs and "Magic Bus: The Who on Tour" by Greil Marcus performed. Individual categories were adapted.
The (6) population of the research material consists of 20 texts that were published between November 9, 1967 and November 26, 1970 in Rolling Stone Magazine published. Seven texts each come from Greil Marcus and Lester Bangs, and six from Jon Landau. The (7) selection of the texts was made in connection with the pre-determined investigation period. All texts were taken from the online archive of the Rolling Stone Magazine taken.7 The number of texts appears to be representative for this study. The selection of the texts as well, not least through certain mentions in the secondary literature.8 This investigation was carried out by only one (8) encoder. The (9) final “data clearing” (review of the data) was ensured by applying the category system several times.
Working with the “raw material”, but also the subsequent evaluation of the developed data, can lead to interpretation difficulties. Philipp A. E. Mayring therefore formulates three basic forms of interpretation9:
Through the (1) summary, the material is reduced to such an extent that the essential content is retained and a corpus is created through various abstraction steps that continues to depict the basic material. Here propositions can be "omitted" if they occur with the same meaning in several places or are "generalized" or replaced if they are implied by other abstract propositions. In addition, they can be "constructed", that is, combined into a global proposition, in order to designate a certain state of affairs as a whole. Those propositions that have already been "integrated" into such a construct are correspondingly omitted. Proposals that represent essential general text components are "selected" and thus retained. Proposals that are found scattered in the text material can be "bundled" and reproduced together. The summary therefore shows six work steps (see Appendix 2.1).
In (2) explication, questionable text passages, such as terms or individual sentences, are made understandable, explained or interpreted with the help of additional material. An explication is necessary when the lexical-grammatical definition of a certain text passage is insufficient for an understanding. There are two types of sources for the additional material: text-inherent or external sources. The former can create a reference within the material and has a defining, descriptive or explanatory effect, but can also be used in a corrective or antithetical manner. When referring to sources inherent in the text, one speaks of a "narrow context analysis". An external source, which adds information that goes beyond the text content, can contain information about the text author, the addressee, the interpreter or the cultural environment. When using external sources, one speaks of a “broad context analysis”. Six work steps can also be identified during explication (see Appendix 2.2).
With a (3) structuring, certain aspects are filtered out of the material (under previously defined classification criteria) in order to be able to assess them under further criteria. A certain structure is drawn from the material with the help of a system of categories. A distinction is made between a “formal structure”, which represents an internal structure of the material, and a “content structure”, which extracts and summarizes certain topics and content areas from the material. There is also the “typifying structuring”, which allows a description of individual distinctive characteristics in a text, and a “scaling structuring”, which provides a definition of certain characteristics (of the material) with regard to individual dimensions (of the category system) around the material on the basis of this to be able to assess as a whole.
A procedure that proceeds in three steps has proven itself for structuring. The first step is to define the categories. In a second step, selected specific text passages are cited as anchor examples in order to serve as a prototype for a category. In a third step, coding rules are defined that allow assignments in the event of delimitation problems within the categories.
The structure of this work is discussed below. To first outline the subject of research, an overview of the emergence of American music magazines in the 1960s and an introduction to the early years of the Rolling Stone Magazine delivered. The difference between the Rolling Stone Magazine to the competing magazines and thus made its importance clear. Then the term “rock ideology”, which is important for this work, is explained, which, in short, describes a certain attitude towards rock music (especially at the end of the 1960s), which ultimately looks for an authentic character on various levels earlier forms of popular music. The research object is thus largely outlined, so that the results of the qualitative content analysis can be discussed in the following chapter. The results are presented and related to the three hypotheses mentioned. Since this thesis works very closely with the existing texts, the results are illustrated by means of numerous text examples. Since some of the text passages filtered out also relate to several aspects, this work seems redundant in certain places. This has to be forgotten, since these passages are important for the understanding of the respective aspects and therefore a repetition in the corresponding sections makes sense. In the appendix there is a list of the reviewed albums (see Appendix 3) as well as the treated texts by the authors (see Appendix 4), so that a comparison can be made at every point.
In a final chapter, the three authors are compared in order to bring their similarities and differences to the point. In addition, they are categorized and brought into connection with the "New Journalism", which is mainly represented by Lester Bangs.
1.1 American music magazines in the late 1960s
The developments in recording technology, which evoked the desire for higher standards in music listeners, had a particular influence on the production of music.10 The music industry began to market the creative excesses of rock music under the label of "progressive rock", "a term that resonated nicely with the radical rhetoric of the era."11 The music was increasingly associated with visual art. One result of this are Bill Grahams' psychedelic light shows.12 The music and its performance became increasingly more demanding and increasingly viewed from an art perspective.
In the course of this, magazines were created that specialized in this music, including Crawdaddy! (1966), Rolling Stone (1967) and Creem (1969), who believed that rock music had become the most important cultural form of a new, rebellious generation. This called for a serious and innovative form of discussion of this phenomenon in terms of its political and social position.13 These magazines wanted to be "an artistic response to rock: music is valued for its complexity, musicians for their emotional intensity."14 In this way they opened up a territory that had hardly been served up to now.
Up to now, rock music has been treated rather marginally, for example in the underground press, which emerged in the early 1960s under the influence of the beat generation and “civil rights” activists. There the rock music was partly treated on the level of instrumentalization and viewed more as "a way of getting 'teenagers turned on". The daily newspapers treated the music only sporadically and especially in terms of its value as a headline. Some weekly or monthly magazines like The Village Voice printed regular columns on pop music, which, however, made up only a small part of the content. It was not unusual for the publications to gradually bring established rock critics into their team to catch up in this new field.15
Language is the main characteristic of popular writing about rock music. One problem that arises is the demand for authority. Simon Frith describes the rock critics as "professional rock fans"16which already implies that these texts are of little academic value and are often based on an opinion and personal preference rather than fact17: "Rock critics more usually take the stance of being 'one of us' who happens to have a job reviewing records. The authority lies in the very fact of their normality, combined with a keen interest in music, resulting in the kind of broad knowledge, it is implied, that other people would have if they had the time. "18
It is also noticeable that the music magazines have a significant influence on the existing canon, as those responsible for their content can decide which music is treated in public.19 An example of this is provided by Greil Marcus, who "[i] n 1970 [...], in his own words, was fired for giving Bob Dylan the thumbs down [...]."20
The magazine Crawdaddy!, founded in 1966, was one of the first to specialize in this regard. The New York Times called it "the first magazine to take rock and roll seriously." It provided a springboard for many rock critics who would later have international success.21Creem was founded in Detroit in early 1969. In the first few months it was a rather small underground magazine that dealt with politics and local musicians like the Stooges or the Motown scene and viewed rock music as a lifestyle. Creem Considered itself "America's Only Rock 'n' Roll Magazine" and employed Robert Christgau, Greil Marcus, Richard Meltzer and Lester Bangs, among others.22 “Unlike RS [ Rolling Stone Magazine ], which is a bastion of San Francisco counterculture rock-as-art orthodoxy, Creem is committed to pop aesthetic. It speaks to fans that consciously value rock as an expression of urban teenage culture. "23
1.2 The Rolling Stone Magazine
In 1966, Jann Wenner left UC Berkeley. "[...] his entire being swelled with a desire to be elsewhere. The cries of the Free Speech Movement rang loud and clear in his ears. But loudest and clearest of all was a new force called rock ‘n’ roll. "24 His enthusiasm for music and the cultural scene around him outweighed his interest in the university. He began experimenting with LSD and played rhythm guitar on The Helping Hand-Outs.25 He had minor articles on rock 'n' roll for during college The Daily Californian written and gave himself the pseudonym "Mr. Jones". He titled these reports "Something's Happening"26which already gives an indication of his future vision of rock music. In one of these reports he writes: "The real act of getting people loose, person to person contact and mass community is the role of rock and roll music [...] When the music stops and it becomes a drag, leave."27
After leaving university, he wrote for the left-wing political magazine Ramparts in San Francisco. There he made the acquaintance of the San francisco chronicle Jazz critic Ralph Gleason28who should become a kind of mentor for Wenner in the future and who is strong in the development of the Rolling Stone Magazine was involved.29 "Together we came up with the idea of a rock'n'roll magazine [...]. There was nothing around in the U.S. like it. "30 In April 1967, Wenner met the photographer Baron Wolman at a "rock 'n' roll conference" at Mills College in Oakland, who shortly thereafter became chief photographer Rolling Stone Magazine has been. Wolman later describes that while working with the magazine he had the feeling of building something that everyone involved really believed in and that had an innovative force behind it: “There wasn't anything talking about music the way we were listening to music. ”31 Jann Wenner describes his intuition behind his magazine: “Neither in 'Time Magazine' nor in daily newspapers, film or television was there anything to be learned about rock music. Although it was now constantly on the radio and in the Yukeboxes [sic], at best teenagers or small amateur fan magazines dealt with it. We wanted to become the voice of rock with Rolling Stone. We gave the bands and artists the opportunity to speak to the audience. "32 The Rolling Stones singer Mick Jagger confirmed this assessment in an interview:
The great thing about Jann was that he was among the earliest rock critics and editors who really understood how we felt as artists. He shared our views. With this understanding, he placed Rolling Stone at the top of rock criticism. Above all, he was the first who wanted to convince others that pop music, especially rock, was not an insignificant flash in the pan, but an art form to be taken seriously. Jann and his people made our music stand out and raised it to the status of other forms of music.33
The first edition of the Rolling Stone Magazine was published on November 9, 1967, printed on 11x17 black and white newsprint. The cover featured a picture of John Lennon shooting the film How I Won the War. The magazine immediately received a lot of attention.34
While many magazines could only last a short time after they were published, that lasted Rolling Stone Magazine consistent from the start. The reason for this was Jann Wenner's company policy: "Jann had recognized early on that the magazine business wasn't just about content, it was about advertising [...]."35 Although the readership of the Rolling Stone Magazine probably perceived it as an underground magazine, it was planned as a large company from the start. It adapted to the zeitgeist, so the layouts were rather unconventional and advertisements were reminiscent of the psychedelic concert posters of the current psychedelic rock bands.36 Since San Francisco was considered the symbolic center of progressive rock at the time, it could Rolling Stone Magazine create a central position through its strong connection to this place.37 The one at that time Rolling Stone Magazine Reporter David Weit recalls: “Dozens of 'hippie rags' crowded the Bay Area […]. Beatnik poet Allen Ginsberg had debuted 'Howl' at the Six Gallery, hippies roamed Golden Gate Park and Jerry Garcia inhabited the Haight-Ashbury. San Francisco was a magnet for young, creative minds from all over the country. "38
One advantage of the Rolling Stone Magazine was that its young reporters had a good connection with the musicians. International stars were also quick to get in touch with the magazine. Mick Jagger remembers recording the 2004 Rolling Stone Magazine into the "Rock 'n' Roll Hall of Fame":
It was Jann Wenner's magazine that put our music scene in the spotlight and made us stand out. Until then, rock musicians were treated as mindless, third-rate oddities. It was only the Rolling Stone that changed that. And they did this by introducing the ultra-long interview. While 'Sixteen' teenage magazine [sic] spent 5 minutes asking you questions about things as important as your hairstyle and clothing, the Rolling Stone now spent hours and hours expressing your views on the world and everything else . From Vietnam to the Beatles to - of course - your sexual preferences. We also dragged Rolling Stone Reporters around with us on our tours from then on. We then had to provide them with drinks, drugs and sometimes even food so that they could deliver the interviews that Jann asked for.39
The magazine also gained attention in academic circles. UC Berkely journalism professor David Littlejohn reports on his impression of the Rolling Stone Magazine: "The writing was a whole new kind of writing I'd never seen before [...]. It combined the best of classical prose with street language. They wrote with the goal of catching much more authenticity, the wholeness of the scene, than anyone could do with The New Yorker or The Atlantic. "40
The Rolling Stone Magazine quickly achieved a dominant status in the field of rock criticism.41 It trumped competing magazines with Jann Wenner's disciplined editorial strategy and articles by Ralph Gleason, Jon Landau, Greil Marcus and other prolific writers.42 Those who do that Rolling Stone Magazine with superstructures, describe their impression: "It is a movement, a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity, an idea that worked and a sound unlike anything heard before."43
Ulf Lindberg et al. summarize the situation of the young people who could now write about rock music:
[...] they are all deeply involved in American cultural mythology, and while America had been the promised land of Puritans and other refugees from Europe, these critics entered rock writing at a time when rock was widely seen as the promise of a new generation. It became their task to secularize this promise and write the Deceleration of Independence and the Constitution of the new Republic of Rock. Therefore they are the founding fathers of rock criticism.44
1.3 The "Rock Ideology"
Rock was something more than pop, more than rock'n'roll. Rock musicians combined an emphasis on skill and technique with the romantic concept of art as individual expression, original and sincere. They claimed to be non-commercial - the organizing logic of their music wasn't to make money or to meet a market demand.45
The term “rock ideology” denotes a consensus on understanding the mindset of rock music, which was particularly prevalent in the late 1960s. According to Gunnar Otte and Matthias Lehmann, the mainstream of rock criticism saw this music as a subversive form of expression against the youth of their parents. The political and social values that were closely related were expressed through music, that is, through artistic means. The attributes attached to this music (authentic, subversive, artistic) were linked to the musical forms from which it emerged: folk music, rock 'n' roll, blues and jazz.46 Peter Wicke formulates three other key terms that are essential for the emergence of the “rock ideology” in the 1960s: creativity, communication and a sense of community. On the one hand he sees a special connection in the American folk and protest song movement, on the other hand he refers to Simon Frith and Howard Horne, who create a connection to the intellectual environment of the British art schools.47
Philipp Demankowski recognizes three criteria which, for the rock critics of the late 1960s, are indications of an authentic character: (1) the degree of physical expression of the musicians, (2) a raw and immediate musical language and (3) the consistent rejection of strategies of appropriation through the music industry.48
David Brackett makes an analogy here to the music criticism of the 1930s and 1940s. During this time, several publications were devoted to jazz, precisely at the time when the discussions about "authenticity" and "commerce" in jazz were becoming more and more frequent. The aesthetic and historical issues were similar in many ways in the mid-1960s.49
The following excursus through the musical forms mentioned provides an overview of the important reference points for the “rock ideology” that these types of music brought with them.
Jazz is a semi-improvising American music, which is characterized by the immediacy of communication, the expressiveness characteristic of the unbounded use of the human voice and a complex flowing rhythm; it is the result of three centuries of blending European and African musical traditions in the United States; and its defining components are European harmonies, Euro-African melodies and African rhythms.50
This is how Marshall Stearn defines jazz. This quote contains the central points that also recur in the idea of “rock ideology” and have become quality criteria for rock music.
For one thing, he describes the Immediacy of communication. He is referring to the aspect of performance, which is a central point in Afro-American music culture, because it is based directly on the effect of the melodies and rhythms as well as their intentional character. Since it is (to a certain extent) improvised spontaneously, it is also the immediate conditions of the performance that are decisive for its (current) development in the African musical traditions contained therein: Emotionality and personal feeling. According to Franklin Rosemont, it's "the spoken word, the song and the dance"51which remained the only creative forms of expression for the African slaves and from which they developed "the art of intense expression, which has always remained the core of the ideology of black music."52
Furthermore, Stearn refers to the characteristic Expressiveness of the voice. Ian Hoare says: “Even with instrumental jazz, the essential form of expression is to imitate the effects of the human larynx. The voice can express original emotions directly [...] and [...] also reproduce experiences - using all linguistic possibilities that are not available to pure instrumental music. "53 Frith comments on this statement that it was precisely the “vocal qualities” of electric guitar playing by Afro-American musicians in the 1960s that had a great influence on other guitarists.54
These two aspects make it clear that jazz music draws a large part of its inspiration from emotional backgrounds. The relation to rhythm is particularly evident in the connection with rock 'n' roll and is therefore examined in more detail at the relevant point in this chapter.
Another important aspect of jazz that found its way into the quality criteria of the "rock ideology" is that technical requirement.55 Most types of jazz are known for their complexity and musical quality. In jazz four tones usually form the musical basis. In addition, from a diastematic point of view, jazz compositions do not contain a clear definition of what constitutes a special relationship between musician and music: jazz is largely constituted spontaneously. Great importance is therefore ascribed to improvisation. The reference to European harmony that Stearn makes can be explained in terms of eclectic phenomena. The jazz harmony is, in a certain way, a derivative of the occidental harmony.56 It is examined in more detail below, taking the blues into account.
In addition to the elements of swing and improvisation, the blues is the most important basis of jazz; he is downright a decisive characteristic of his being. The blues has a decisive effect in jazz [...] on almost all musical means and elements: on tone, melody, tonality, modality, harmony, form, on the choice of instruments and even partly on the melody rhythm [...].57
The blues has its origin in the fieldhollers and work songs of the North American slaves. With the deportation of the West African population to America, their sound world met that of the European one. So two distant musical cultures mingled. It was the dance expression and mostly pentatonic vocal melodies, but above all rhythmic elements, that encountered the complex European harmony. A particularly striking phenomenon that developed from this is the blue note. These are the unstable intonation of the third or seventh and the use of the tritone, which presumably arose from an alignment process, since the Western and African understandings of the harmonic functions of these intervals differ.58
Another characteristic of the blues is the so-called blues scheme, which is based on an extended cadence (I IV V I). These are three four-bar groups, each starting on a different pitch, but always ending on the first step. On the main steps, chords with the minor seventh are usually used. This scheme is considered a basic framework, but was varied in many ways in the development of blues and jazz. A melodic feature of the blues is the use of pentatonic scales. Usually a minor pentatonic is played over a major sound, which creates a tonal sharpness. Often the thirds and sevenths are voiced unstably on the instrument, which leads back to the imitation of the voice.59
Paul Garon describes the blues as "an aggressive and uncompromising enforcement of the omnipotence of desire and fantasy in the face of all oppression"60. Thus the blues, under this point of reference above all its texts, stands for a symbol against “the humiliation of the language, the repressive forces of the church, the police, the family and the ruling class, against the suppression of sexuality and aggression, against the general Reluctance in everyday life. "61 These views can also be found in rock 'n' roll.
1.3.3 Rock 'n' Roll
The emergence of rock 'n' roll is clearly linked to the political events after World War II.With the advent of the Iron Curtain in the Cold War, a political force ("McCarthyism" or the "McCarthy Era") emerged in the United States under Joseph McCarthy, aimed at eradicating radical ideas and disagreements in American culture. In addition, the US economy produced in abundance after the end of the war and the various industries developed increasingly. This is how a broad middle class with high purchasing power emerged in American society. As a result of social oppression, American youth fell further and further into mistrust of the economic thinking of the state, or lost confidence in science, technology and capitalist industrial society. In this social atmosphere, the youth were looking for a platform that could express their thoughts and feelings. This opportunity was offered to them by the emerging rock 'n' roll.62
The term rock 'n' roll (also: rock and roll) describes a conglomerate of different forms of popular music, which is composed of both “white” and “black” musical traditions63 and therefore threatened to disrupt the previous separation of races and class interaction in social terms. So it was ultimately a matter of opinion whether rock 'n' roll was either celebrated as a democratization of culture or denounced as the destruction of western civilization.64
From an economic point of view, rock 'n' roll had changed the structure of the music business in such a way that "amateurs" were also given a hearing, as this music, with its rather low musical requirements, was also accessible to less talented musicians. Aesthetically, he had fostered a propensity for Afro-American sensibilities and working-class styles, thus calling into question the prevailing cultural values.65
An essential characteristic of Afro-American music is the rhythm and thus its determination as movement, more precisely: dance music. Through its “ritualized form of physical relationships […], dance is filled with sexual tension and possibilities. One aspect of the rhythm in black music [...] is the clear expression of such tensions and needs. […] In black music, the body and thus sexuality [is] directly expressed through a direct physical beat and an intense emotional sound - sound and beat are primarily expressed felt […].“66 This component fitted into rock 'n' roll. In this way he set the conformity pressure of the youth "a philosophy of enjoying life for its own sake"67 against, since it, namely with its origins in Afro-American music, was considered obscene and immoral in American society and was associated with the lowest level of the social hierarchy.68 The possibility of public expression of sexuality became a sign of rebellion for youth culture.69
Between 1954 and 1958 in particular, rock 'n' roll opened up a large market in youth culture. The term, which is borrowed from the vocabulary of the rhythm and blues tradition and alludes ambiguously to rhythmic movement patterns, was introduced by radio DJ Alan Freed in the early 1950s. He specialized his radio show "Record Rendevouz" in Afro-American rhythm and blues for a "white" audience. Since his music selection achieved a high sales response, these titles were marketed under the Rock 'n' Roll label. The “portable receiver” made it possible for the young people to receive this music (from the parents' side) in an uncontrolled manner, which is a major factor in the spread of this music.
If African American rhythm and blues bands dominated the attention of the youth in the early 1950s, it was "white" bands in the middle of the decade who published cover versions of the biggest chart hits in the rhythm and blues category and thus unified themselves Part of the market (re) developed70. Bill Haley and Elvis Presley “tried [...] to imitate the peculiarities of the black originals and to include their rhythmically emphasized intensity with the strong emphasis on the beat, the vocal technique of shouting, their aggressive and provocative sound [in their music]. The aesthetics of black music thus became an increasingly dominant factor in the pop sector and found a new social base in the white American youth. "71
Due to the changing marketing of the Afro-American bands under the label Rock 'n' Roll, which specialized in “white” young people, their music no longer meant for them the cultural expression of the problems of Afro-American minorities. As a result, the texts were adapted to the new audience (topics such as school, home and leisure came to the fore) and the performance of the music relied more on show elements. The greatest consequence that emerged from this development is the expansion of the music industry, for which a large commercial area has now opened up with the “teenagers” category, not only increasing record sales, but also new formats such as youth magazines or radio and television stations brought with them that could specifically focus on the lifestyle and worldview of their new target group.72
1.3.4 Folk music
The point in time referred to in this section under the title “folk music” is often found in historiography under the term “folk revival” and refers to the period in which folk music had its strongest influence on rock .73 This is the early 1960s in the United States. "The early days of the American folk 'revival' [...] was determined by a rural romanticism, by the search for values and ways of life that should counterbalance urban corruption, commerce and mass music."74 The folk singer Woody Guthrie embodies these qualities. He traveled the country and wrote songs about his experiences with depression and leftist activists. With songs like “This Land is Your Land”, “So Long it's been Good to Know You” or “This Train is Bound for Glory”, he combined folk music and the left-wing political side. A saying that he wrote on his guitar is also indicative: "This machine kills fascists".75
The music had the character of "workers music" and aimed to create a class solidarity. The authenticity of the music related to its effect, not its origin. The main protagonists of this music came from the left bohemian, who wanted the music to represent both a political and a musical antithesis to commercial pop.76 “Even if American folk music - as Denisoff says cynically - is ultimately reduced to 'what one heard at private meetings and events, the' chaotic wreaths 'of the radicals (leftists)', rock musicians nonetheless used these forms of communication Starting point for their own claim to musical authenticity. "77 The focus on the voice was characteristic of the folk movement. The folk community only developed through collective music-making. This form of expression was particularly widespread in the colleges, as it was the only form of expression for the students in which they could communicate their political concerns. For them, folk music was given a status that can be compared with that of Afro-American music for Afro-Americans. In fact, these types of music also met in the civil rights movement and the protest music that went with it. Folk music generated a community that could define itself through meeting places such as cafes and clubs or festivals and that did not really distinguish between artist and audience, because everyone was always invited to participate. It was not about a particularly good technique of playing music or the extravagant appearance. The aesthetic criterion of this music was called "honesty" and was deliberately directed against the values of mass music.78 The followers of folk music made music under the aspect of "self-realization".
In the early 1960s, the distinction between authentic and commercial bands and musicians was discussed in folk music circles. For example, Peter Seeger, another important character for the folk scene, was considered authentic, whereas a group like the Rooftop Singers, who interpreted popular folk songs, was considered commercial. However, it was unclear how the boundaries were drawn. Joan Baez, for example, was rated authentic despite her twelve top 40 albums. Liberal activists Peter, Paul and Mary moved between the two fronts because of their commercial success.79 In the mid-1960s, these values found their way into rock music and the focus on "honest" lyrics became more important.80
Marc Elliot asserted that there was a move "from romantic politics to political romanticism" in the New York folk scene in the mid-1960s.81 gave. This implies a newly established relationship between artist and audience that led to a new definition of authenticity: While the aim of the songs in the early 1960s was still political organization and the creation of solidarity, music later developed into a literary expression of individual dissatisfaction with reality. The folk musicians also distanced themselves by changing their instrumentation and moving from the immediate “singing circle” to the stage and into the studio.82
This development can be illustrated by the career of guitarist and singer Bob Dylan, who plays an important role in the folk scene. He was considered a supporter of the “Civil Right Movement” and spoke out on songs like “Oxford Town” or “Only a Pawn in Their Game” on racism and the murders of important people in this movement.83 Bob Dylan learned in 1965 how much the circle of “strict” folk musicians attached great importance to their special definition of authenticity. He appeared at the Newport Folk Festival with an electric guitar and was also accompanied by a band with electric instruments. According to various sources, the audience booed him and Peter Seeger, "was so livid he tried to cut the cord to the power supply with an ax."84
This moment marks a turning point in the relationship with folk and rock music. Up to now, folk music has meant an alternative to the rather simple texts of rock 'n' roll and was mainly received by student, activist sides. The connection that was created opened up a larger audience and integrated the "more primal urges that rhythm and blues and rock 'n' roll had turned loose."85
1.3.5 British art schools
Howard Horne and Simon Frith suggest the role of British art schools in developing the artistic criteria and standards on which rock music is based. They refer to statements by British musicians such as Keith Richards or Eric Clapton, who, like many other British rock musicians, studied at an art school for a certain period of time.86 The experience of the art school has given rock musicians in particular the basis of their awareness of themselves as musicians in artistic and ideological terms. The result was that, in contrast to the traditional pop song, the contradicting relationship between art and commerce, between artistic standards and pop culture, was reflected in rock music and became the driving force behind its development.87
Frith and Horne explain that the basic principle in British art schools is that the statement of a work of art evokes restlessness and movement. So art cannot be a passive instrument of the economic and social interests of capitalism. The art students' style of expression was shaped by a philosophy of autonomy and creativity and borrowed from avant-garde manifestos of the early 20th century. In this ideology, art relates to the individual in a kind of inwardness.88 In this way, art becomes a direct connection between people and creates communication. Here, too, the key to realization lies in the individuality of the artist. The more honest he is with himself, the more directly he can communicate with the audience.
1.3.6 Commercial Aspects
One argument of those who criticized music from a commercial point of view was "that the shape of the goods does not [only] remain external to the product"89. That too Rolling Stone Magazine was among the voices who argued that way. For them, the yardstick for the music was a non-commercial and, based on this, authentic character. With commercialization, these critics immediately saw a "weakening or even destruction of the aesthetic and political content."90
At the end of the 1960s music critics tried to transform the term rock music: “[...] possible countercultural efforts [were] quickly [disclosed] under the title 'Pop' and instead reformatted as 'Rock'. Rock should stand for a less commercial and superficial, more complex, artistically autonomous and / or more comprehensive, more collective, more powerful form of youthful underground culture [...]. In short: 'Rock is progressive, pop reactionary' [...] "91 Rather, the term pop stands for “supplying passive consumers with distracting products. The populist hopes, however, they summarize under the title 'Rock'. "92
Thomas Hecken establishes two modes of view that prevailed in the rock discourse: [...] a direction that pretends to be authentic, vital and a strong reference to r & b and straight rock demands, represented by Jon Landau [...], who for example plays the Stones against the Doors - 'I would probably like the Doors better if they had learned how to play hard rock or the blues before trying to do what they're doing now. They didn't, and as a result, their music sounds to me like it exists in a void '[...] - and a second direction, which essentially emphasizes the more abstract, although more sensual and comprehensive character of mind-expanding sounds: Light my Fire of the Doors as accumulated instrumental kineticism [...], the Sergeant Pepper -Album of the Beatles as monument of rock (total involvement of a circus, as the dawn after a trip; [...]), the rock sound the Byrds as the basis for a state of consciousness that enables direct communication that crosses the boundaries of language [...].93
Greil Marcus looks at rock music from the perspective of mass culture. For him it has the function of giving the audience (divided by capitalism) a feeling of community. Furthermore, it can only become an art form if it becomes the carrier of unconventional thoughts that can exceed the limits of mass consumption. For him, rock music is considered popular art because it conveys and processes contradictions. With regard to American rock music, he particularly emphasizes that it processes an ideology of equality:94
The ideal of equality not only contradicts everyday experiences, but also carries a contradiction in itself: equality opposes any ambition and personal feeling of importance to the community, and it reinforces the collective prejudices of the less equals make their personal failures even clearer. Marcus sees this contradiction embodied in the most successful rock music: On the one hand, ambition and willingness to take risks, a sense of lifestyle and adventure, the refusal to put up with it; on the other hand a feeling for origin and history, a dependency on community and tradition, the acceptance of one's own fate.95
The term authenticity gets its weight when communicative aspects and a statement are in the foreground. If the audience identifies the artist's intention as serious, parodic or ironic content can also come across as authentic. Accordingly, the music appears authentic when "[it] mean what it says [...] and vice versa."96 In the field of rock music, the term sometimes shifts from the specific to the general because certain musical idioms or artists are viewed as authentic per se. Authenticity does not appear as an interpretation of a relationship between music (s) and external circumstances, but as an inherent factor in the music itself. In rock history, two discourses on authenticity in particular come to the fore. One relates to folk music, the term being related to communicative and traditional aspects. Music achieves its authentic value through the mediation of shared experiences. The other refers to a "basically Romantic version of high art"97which achieves its authentic value by deviating from tradition towards an individual point of view. In both cases "trueness" plays an important role: In folk music it appears as an identification with the "underdog", the oppressed or outsider. On the artistic side, it comes from the unique qualities of the artists.
It can be clearly observed that the concept of “authenticity” is of particular importance in each section and that its definition is constantly changing, so it cannot be clearly defined. In summary, however, it can be stated that the “rock ideology” describes in a certain way the search for “authenticity” in its divergent forms.
Demankowski identifies three journalistic strategies that have developed from this: (1) the poetic upgrading of rock texts (e.g. with Bob Dylan), (2) analysis patterns of classical music (e.g. with the Beatles) and (3) new journalism.98
2. Evaluation of the qualitative content analysis
2.1 Jon Landau
Jon Landau is seen as one of the rock critics who exuded the most authority in rock discourse. Between 1967 and 1975 he was the "chief music critic" at Crawdaddy!, Rolling Stone Magazine, Phoenix and The Real Paper. He reaffirmed his interpretations and criticisms primarily with his wide-ranging knowledge in the fields of producing and the music industry. In 1975 he finished his work in the magazines and became the producer of Bruce Springsteen.99
Landau comes from a well-off Jewish family, from which he brought a feeling for a strong social commitment and a widespread interest in music. He lived in Brooklyn and Queens before moving to Lexington, Massachusetts in 1966. He was a musician himself and was involved in the folk music scene. In 1965 he enrolled in the history department at Brandeis University, where he came into contact with politically interested students, but at the same time discovered that they were moving away from activism towards an inner search with the help of drugs and rock music. Landau was of the opinion that rock music should be political in the sense of a cultural revolution and rejected the general attitude of his fellow students: “Through college, I consumed sound as if it were the staff of life. Others enjoyed drugs, school, travel, adventure. I just liked music: listening to it, playing it, talking about it. If some followed the inspiration of acid, or Zen, or dropping out, I followed the spirit of rock'n'roll. "100 He saw himself musically rooted in rock 'n' roll of the 1950s. In his opinion, the rock musicians should not rise to "prophets", but concentrate on producing "body music" in the sense of rock 'n' roll.101
Chronic bowel disease forced Landau to quit making music and studying, and he started working in a record store. Shortly afterwards he met Paul Williams, the editor of the newly published magazine Crawdaddy!. Landau told him that he could write better reviews than the ones he read in this magazine. Williams must have been impressed by Landau's insubordination because he eventually gave him a chance and soon made him the main critic of his magazine.102 There he was able to express his point of view towards the San Francisco scene by writing partly devastating reviews of psychedelic rock, which he simply viewed as presumptuous and pretentious:103 “My temperament being what it is, I often enjoyed hating as much as loving. That San Francisco shit corrupted the purity of the rock that I voed [sic] and I could have led a crusade against it. The Moby Grape moved me, but those songs about White Rabbits and hippie love made me laugh when they didn't make me sick. I found more rock'n'roll in the dubbed-in hysteria on the Rolling Stones Got Live if You Want It than on most San Francisco albums combined. "104
As Ralph Gleason and Jann Wenner the competing Rolling Stone Magazine Landau was also involved there as a scribe for the “regular columns”, which took up a whole page. These are articles that appear regularly and usually come from the same author and apply to a specific subject area. These relatively long reviews were given a lot of weight in the magazine. Landau helped establish a canon that emphasized soul music and the blues, as well as the "holy trinity" (Beatles, Rolling Stones and Bob Dylan). This was special because Jann Wenner and Ralph Gleason as well as some other journalists from Rolling Stone Magazine came from San Francisco and felt rooted there. For them, a new era of rock had begun in 1966, which they founded on Jefferson Airplane and Buffalo Springfield. The Beatles, Jimi Hendrix or Pink Floyd were the gifted disciples of this era for them. Landau, on the other hand, was rather skeptical of the San Francisco Principles. While Ralph Gleason saw the birth of the new rock aesthetic close to the aesthetic of avant-garde jazz, Landau emphasized that the rock aesthetic actually had its roots in the "body music" of the 1950s. These differences of opinion were already evident in the first edition of the Rolling Stone Magazine an interesting tension.105 In addition to his work at the magazine, he completed his bachelor's degree in Brandeis and in the meantime tried his hand at producing.106 He made friends with the Atlantic Records producer Jerry Wexler and convinced him to sign the J. Geils Band, which Landau wanted to stand by as a producer. This attempt failed, however, and shortly afterwards Landau got another chance with the band MC5. However, this attempt also failed with the album "Back in the USA" and Landau returned to the Rolling Stone Magazine.107
Despite his failure, he brought with him a wealth of experience that encompassed music, production technology and the music business. From now on, his texts were even sharper and more authoritarian. By 1970, Landau believed that rock music had become less important but was still meaningful. He explains this in his book "Its too late to stop now", published two years later, in which he explains that his enthusiasm for rock music is slowly waning. In what is probably his most famous column, "Loose Ends", Landau describes that between 1966 and 1974 he was increasingly disenchanted with rock music.108
Landau's success in the music business began in 1975 with his production work for Bruce Springsteen, in which he had high hopes from the beginning: “Last Thursday, at the Harvard Square theater, I saw my rock'n'roll past flash before my eyes. And I saw something else: I saw rock and roll future and its name is Bruce Springsteen. And on a night when I needed to feel young, he made me feel like I was hearing music for the very first time. ”Now other artists like Jackson Browne also noticed him, who commissioned Landau to produce a“ Rock "Plate with The Pretender to help.109
When asked about the relationship between rock and art, Landau replied in the summer of 1968 that rock music had developed drastically from the honky-tonk atmosphere of rock 'n' roll to a valid art form. For him, rock music is only authentic in the form of a revival or a further development of early rock 'n' roll. The Rolling Stones in particular, according to Landau, modernize and interpret to a greater extent than, for example, the Beatles, which is why he always counts them among his favorites. The Beach Boys, the Byrds, and Creedence Clearwater Revival are among the few exceptions that could measure up to Landau's standards.110
Landau's texts are characterized by their accuracy when it comes to production. No other reviewer at the time had told the bands that they have the wrong producer or what details they did wrong. He draws this self-confidence from his experience with the production. His academic training underpinned Landau's intellectual credibility. For him, however, it was important to combine academic knowledge with experience: as a fan and as a musician. It is also noticeable that he seldom tries to explain his musical terminology or to reflect the limits of his musical understanding.111
2.1.2 Writing style
Jon Landau's writing style seems to be clearly shaped by his security as an expert in certain fields. He is not only eloquent and sometimes complex, but also noticeably determined. His claims never seem to allow any doubt as to their validity. This is first shown by direct formulations: "He [James Taylor] seems to be more interested in soothing his troubled mind. In the process he will doubtless soothe a good many heads besides his own."112 He also uses arguments of plausibility more indirectly: "It is only natural that as part of the overall experimentation going on in pop, attempts at using new combinations of instruments would be tried."113 Nonetheless, Landau occasionally makes it clear that this is his own opinion, but he tries to substantiate this conclusively:
For some of Aretha's fans, her first album was her best and each successive one has decreased in interest. Up until this album, I think the reverse has been the case. I never loved a man was her least refined and, to me, was fairly dull and repetitious. Aretha Arrives was a solid improvement, and Lady Soul was her very best-in fact, it may well prove to be the best album of the year. On that record Aretha is heard in command of absolutely everything […]. She proved herself capable of encompassing a variety of moods, tempos, lyrics, and styles and yet she remained on top of them all. There was no slackness and no throwaway cut. Her every nuance was perfectly controlled and executed. "114
Landau rarely expresses himself colloquially, rather a casual tone of voice occurs in a self-relativising form: "The Stones were the first band to say, 'Up against the wall, motherfuckers', and they said it with class."115 Here he puts this phrase in the mouth of the Rolling Stones to show their special attitude and in a certain way evades the responsibility of this vulgar expression by means of the quotation marks. He does not provide any evidence that this statement actually comes from one of the members of the Rolling Stones.
His choice of words is also very precise and his representations are less affective than technically correct: “'Lantern' is another comparatively successful effort in which some excellent instrumental efforts help transcend a rather boring tune and a poor lead vocal. Particularly of note are Wyaman's guitar runs on the bass and his syncopated playing over extended chords at the end of each chorus. "116 When reviewing the album Aretha Now he draws on his knowledge in music theory: "Vocally the only good segment is the" Freedom "chorus, primarily because it is sung over a I-III-IV-V progression [...]"117 Nevertheless, he lets himself be carried away with associative or pictorial formulations that loosen up his demanding texts: "The drums don't punch and the bass lack sock."118 About the development of the album Beggars Banquet he says: "The Stones are constantly being reborn, but somehow the baby always look like the parents."119 Another example can be found in the review for James Taylor Album: "[...] this album is the coolest breath of fresh air I've inhaled in a good long while."120 He also likes to use extravagant terms: "[...] the Stones never got bogged down in the puritanism that mars so many of the English blues bands."121
Landau seems to require a wealth of specialist knowledge and background information in order to understand his texts. As already explained, he not only formulates his texts on a high linguistic level, but also uses music-related language that ranges from certain production processes to instrument knowledge and music theory. In addition, there are often statements that assume a certain basic understanding of the reader about the respective cultural environment or special events and facts. At the end of the review of the album Aretha Now he formulates some pointers to the singer, one of which is the advice to work with a songwriter. As "proof" follow examples of other successful musicians who also work with songwriting teams and based on this this statement: "And I needn't add anything about the Motown artists."122 It was certainly well known in music and production circles that the Motown label employed a few well-known teams of authors (Holland-Dozier-Holland / Ashford-Simpson) and had their own house band (The Funk Brothers)123, but not without a doubt in the entire audience or the Rolling stone Readership.
Another example can be found in the introduction to the review Beggers Banquet: "On the surface rock and roll changes at an amazing pace. The influence of a figure like the Maharishi can appear and disappear in a matter of month. "124 What is meant here is Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, who in 1967 (one year before the review was published) achieved a certain degree of notoriety in the hippie scene through the Beatles.125 It can be assumed that the Rolling Stone Readership at the end of 1968 went beyond this very scene and should therefore not be known to everyone without exception. However, this example could also be seen as one of Landau's subtle arguments, since his statement (with the ignorance of the reader) is in a certain way self-evident. In very special cases, however, he also provides an explanation: "Wexler told me that he has tried to get Hayes and Porter (Sam and Dave's writing-production team) [...]".126
Overall, Landau's texts seem to challenge the reader and thus appear in a certain way exclusive. As in academic circles, a basic knowledge of musical and cultural facts and, in some cases, technical terms must be available in order to comprehend his reviews in their entirety.
2.1.3 Structure of the reviews
Jon Landau does not follow a strict structure in his reviews. Instead, he builds his texts specifically on the subject or its main message. Nevertheless, some parallels can be seen.
The review of the James Taylor Album follows a seemingly conventional sequence. After a brief assessment by the musician, Landau treats six selected songs in order to then point out a kind of conclusion on a technical production problem. The review is also comparable to this Blood, Sweat and Tearswho, after an introduction by the band and a rough musical analysis, comes to a final judgment by placing the skills of two musicians in the band above that of the other band members.
In a similar way, but much more detailed, he devotes himself to the album Aretha Now. After a brief overview of what Landau believes are important points in the singer's oeuvre, he first compares her previous works with the current one, which is the subject of his review. Then he deals in detail with the production of the album and also makes comparisons with its predecessors, and he also comments on the work of the label responsible. He supports his observations with extensive background and inside information. This is followed by a series of individual analyzes of all the songs on the album, which are positive or negative in different ways. Here, too, he emphasizes his broad knowledge of the music industry. In the last six paragraphs he formulates suggestions for improvement both to the singer and to the label and relativizes his direct demands in a final statement on the grounds that he only expressed them in favor of Aretha Franklin.
The review of the album Their Satanic Majesties Request seems in the broadest sense to be a commentary on its “new sound”, which Jon Landau focuses on in his text. After a personal assessment of the early Rolling Stones and a superficial statement about the album, Landau refers to the details of the production and criticizes it rather negatively. The main part of the criticism consists of individual analyzes that repeatedly lead Landau back to his claim that the Rolling Stones have not yet concretized their “new sound”. He summarizes this again precisely at the end of the text and draws a final comparison between the early and (at the time) current status of the band.
In another review of the Rolling Stones, namely the album Beggars Banquet, Landau mainly devotes himself to the cultural significance of the band. At the beginning he ponders the transience or the speed of development of rock 'n' roll and cites Elvis and the Rolling Stones as two contrasting examples, the latter standing for a constantly changing band. In what follows, he elaborates this idea by telling an anecdote from a Rolling Stones concert he was present at. In this way he creates an arc of tension that leads him to his main thesis: “Violence. The Rolling Stones are violence. "127 Via another digression, this time in music history, in which he describes the relationship between politics and protest and folk music and rock 'n' roll, he now comes back to the motivations of the Rolling Stones and finally to the album. In the following, he goes into individual songs that he interprets or analyzes on a musical level. About a comparison to an older album by the band and to the album Stg. Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band of the Beatles he comes to a conclusion and also manages it with the help of background information about the album cover (from Beggars Banquet) to express a criticism of the music industry.
The text Jimi Hendrix and Eric Clapton: A Consideration of 1967 Trios represents a specialty. Jon Landau reviews or compares in this text two albums that not only come from the same genre (psychedelic rock), but also from two trio bands: The Jimi Hendrix Experience and Cream. After a brief explanation of the style in whose canon the two bands fit, a first comparison takes place. In the following, Landau analyzes precisely selected songs from the Cream album Fresh Cream and draws a first conclusion. He repeats this procedure for the album Are you experienced the Jimi Hendrix Experience. Landau does not draw a conclusion in this text. Rather, he integrates his conclusions into each paragraph by adding the reflections to it Fresh Cream and the band Cream refers directly to The Jimi Hendrix Experience in the running text.
The two steps of this chapter so far reveal a lot about Landau's understanding of music. His sophisticated language shows his almost academic approach to music. By expressing himself in such a highly elected manner, this also implies his view that music deserves this high status. His way of comparing bands, with each other or with their previous work, also shows that he expects some performance that will maintain their standards.
1 Rolling Stone, Issue 1., 1967, p. 2.
2 Lindberg, Ulf et al .: “Rock Criticism from the Beginning. Amusers, Bruisers and Cool-Headed Cruisers. ", Peter Lang Publishing, New York et al., 2005 (hereinafter cited as:" Rock Criticism "), p. 133.
3 Lorenz, Dagmar: "Journalism", Carl Ernst Poeschl Verlag GmbH, 2nd edition, Stuttgart, 2009, p. 129 ff.
4 Bonfadelli, Heinz: Media content research. Guns, methods, applications. UVK Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Konstanz, 2002, p. 88 ff.
5 Ibid., P. 88 ff.
6 Griessner, Christoph: “Journalistic quality of music reviews. A content analysis study taking into account the subcultural functions of pop journalism. ”, University of Vienna, 2010.
8 For example, the text "Jimi Hendrix and Eric Clapton: A Consideration of 1967 Trios" was used several times in "Rock Criticism" as a prime example of Landau's lyrics. (See Rock Criticism, pp. 141 ff.)
9 Mayring, Philipp: “Qualitative content analysis” in: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung, 2000, p. 193 ff.
10 Garafalo, Reebee and Waksman, Steve: “Rockin 'Out. Popular Music in the U.S.A. ”, 6th Edition, Pearson, Massachussetts, 2014 (hereinafter cited as: Rockin 'Out), p. 200.
11 Ibid., P. 200.
12 Ibid., P. 200.
13 Rock Criticism p. 200.
14 Jones, Carys Wyn: “The Rock Canon. Cannonical Values in the Reception of Rock Albums. ”, Ashgate Publishing Company, Hampshire / Burlington, 2008 (hereinafter cited as: Rock Canon), p.106.
15 Rock Criticism, p. 132.
16 Frith, Simon: “Sound Effects. Youth, Leisure, and the Politics of Rock 'n' Roll. ", Pantheon, 1981, pp. 165 ff.
17 Rock Canon, p. 105.
18 Ibid., P. 105.
19 Ibid., P. 104
20 Rock Criticism, p. 136.
21 Knobler, Peter: Crawdaddy!, in: The Beat Patrol, https://beatpatrol.wordpress.com/2009/08/02/peter-knobler-crawdaddy-2008/, 2008.
22 Rock Criticism, p. 138.
23 Rock Criticism, p. 137.
24 Lee, Stephanie M .: The Origins of Rolling Stone, in: The Daily Californian, https://archive.dailycal.org/article.php?id=25647, 08/20/2007 (hereinafter cited as: Daily Californian).
29 Rock Criticism, p. 133.
30 Daily Californian.
31 Daily Californian.
32 Vieth, Udo: Pop culture icon, in: Deutschlandfunk, https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/50-jahre-us-magazin-rolling-stone-ikone-der-pop-kultur.2588.de.html?dram:article_id=400251, November 12, 2017 .
34 Daily Californian.
36 Rock Criticism, p. 133.
37 Rock Criticism, 135.
38 Daily Californian.
39 Vieth, Udo: Pop culture icon, in: Deutschlandfunk, https://www.deutschlandfunk.de/50-jahre-us-magazin-rolling-stone-ikone-der-pop-kultur.2588.de.html?dram:article_id=400251, November 12, 2017 .
40 Daily Californian.
41 Rock Criticism, p. 132.
42 Rock Criticism, p. 133.
43 Daily Californian.
44 Rock Criticism, p. 133.
45 Wicke, Peter: “The Ideology of Rock”, in: “Rock Music. Culture, aesthetics and sociology. ”, Cambridge University Press, 1995 (hereinafter cited as: Ideology of Rock), p. 92.
46 Otte, Gunnar and Lehmann, Matthias: "Between entertainment, authenticity and art", Springer, Wiesbaden, 2019 (hereinafter cited as: entertainment, authenticity and art), p. 8.
47 Ideology of Rock, p. 95.
48 Demankowski, Philipp: "Where is pop journalism?", GRIN Verlag GmbH, Norderstedt, 2008 (hereinafter cited as: Pop journalism), p. 27.
49 Brackett, David: “The Pop, Rock, and Soul Reader. Histories and Debates ”, Oxford University Press, 2013 (hereinafter cited as: Pop, Rock and Soul Reader), p. 216.
50 Frith, Simon: “Youth culture and rock music. Sociology of the English music scene. ”, Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1981 (hereinafter cited as: youth culture and rock music), p. 22.
51 Youth culture and rock music, p. 22.
52 Ibid., P. 22.
53 Ibid., P. 23.
54 Ibid., P. 24.
55 Entertainment, Authenticity and Art, p. 8.
56 Issenbeck, Andreas: "Diastematic Aspects of Jazz Improvisation", Verlag Dr. Kovač, Hamburg, 2007 (hereinafter cited as: Jazz improvisation), p. 13 f.
57 Ibid., P. 25.
58 Ibid., P. 25 ff.
59 Jazz improvisation, p. 28 ff.
60 Youth culture and rock music, p. 25.
61 Ibid., P. 25.
62 Zhang, Yonghong: "Analysis of the Rock and Roll Phenomenon in USA", American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 2003, p. 57 ff.
63 Wicke, Peter and Ziegenrücker, Wieland and Kai-Erik: "Handbuch der popular Musik.", Atlantis Musikbuch-Verlag, 3rd edition, 1997 (hereinafter cited as: Handbuch popular Musik), p. 447.
64 Rockin Out, p. 124.
65 Ibid., P. 124.
66 Youth culture and rock music, p. 25.
67 Handbook of Popular Music, p. 447.
68 Ibid., P. 447.
69 Youth culture and rock music, p. 25.
70 Handbook of Popular Music, p. 449.
71 Ibid., P. 449.
72 Handbook of popular music, p. 449 ff.
73 Youth culture and rock music, p. 35.
74 Ibid., P. 35.
75 Rockin Out, p. 157 ff.
76 Youth culture and rock music, p. 36.
77 Ibid., P. 36.
78 Youth culture and rock music, p. 37.
79 Rockin Out, p. 159.
80 Youth culture and rock music, p. 38.
81 Ibid., P. 39.
82 Youth culture and rock music, p. 39.
83 Rockin Out, p. 159.
84 Ibid., P. 160.
85 Ibid., P. 160.
86 Frith, Simon and Horne, Howard: "Art into Pop.", Methuen & Co, London and New York, 1987, pp. 27ff.
87 Ideology of Rock, p. 93.
88 Ideology of Rock, p. 94.
89 Hecken, Thomas: "Pop - History of a Concept 1955-2009", transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2009 (in the following cited as: Pop - History of a Concept), p.212.
90 Ibid., P. 212.
91 Pop - History of a Concept, p. 274.
92 Ibid., P. 298.
93 Pop - History of a Concept, p. 216.
94 Youth culture and rock music, p. 67 f.
95 Youth culture and rock music, p. 68.
96 Rock Criticism, p. 45.
97 Rock Criticism, p. 45.
98 Popournalism, p. 29.
99 Rock Criticism, p. 141.
100 Landau, Jon: Growing Young with Rock and Roll, in: The Real Paper, https://web.archive.org/web/20030202021626/http://home.theboots.net/theboots/articles/future.html, May 22, 1974 (hereinafter cited as: Growing Young with rock and roll).
101 Rock Criticism, p. 141.
102 Rock Criticism, p. 142.
103 Kurutz, Steve: Jon Landau, https://www.allmusic.com/artist/jon-landau-mn0000255986 (hereinafter cited as: Jon Landau).
104 Growing Young with Rock and Roll.
105 Rock Criticism, p. 142.
106 Rock Criticism, pp. 142 f.
107 Jon Landau.
108 Rock Criticism, p. 144.
109 Jon Landau.
110 Rock Criticism, p. 146.
111 Rock Criticism, pp. 145 f.
112 See Appendix 4.1.6, lines 4-5
113 See Appendix 4.1.1 lines 1-2
114 See Appendix 4.1.3, lines 6-14
115 See Appendix 4.1.4 lines 20-21
116 See Appendix 4.1. 2 lines 116-119
117 See Appendix 4.1.3, lines 52-53
118 See Appendix 4.1.3, lines 72-73
119 See Appendix 4.1.4 lines 11-12
120 See Appendix 4.1.6 line 38
121 See Appendix 4.1.4, lines 16-17
122 See Appendix 4.1.3, lines 140-141
123 Handbook of Popular Music, p. 460.
124 See Appendix 4.1.4 lines 1-2
125 Orr, David: Beatles spiritual guru 'never made a pass at Mia Farrow', in: The Telegraph, https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/india/1510913/Beatles-spiritual-guru-never-made-a-pass-at-Mia-Farrow.html, 02/19/2006.
126 See Appendix 4.1.3, lines 100-101
127 See Appendix 4.1.4 line 72
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