Moors are black
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The Moors is a collective name for a group of Berber tribes formerly living in North Africa as nomads, who in the 7th century AD. accepted Islam and played an essential role in the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula as a fighting force. They later settled there.
The name "Moors" is supposedly derived from the Roman province of Mauritania or the Kingdom of Mauritania and that is said to be derived from the Latin "maurus", which means "dark-skinned". Other sources claim that the term comes from the Greek and means something like "black, dark, dark-skinned, dark-haired". Mauritania is referred to in this version as the land of the dark skinned.
In 711 AD Moors invaded Visigoth Spain. Under the leadership of Tariq ibn Ziyad, they brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under their rule in an eight-year campaign. When trying to cross the Pyrenees, they were defeated by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours and Poitiers in 732 AD. repulsed. By 759 the Moors north of the Pyrenees had been completely expelled with the conquest of the coastal landscape of Septimania by Pippin the Younger. Still, the Moors were able to operate in southern France well into the 10th century.
The Moors ruled the Iberian Peninsula (except for a small enclave in the northwest) and North Africa for several decades, sometimes with their own caliph in Cordoba. 750 AD the Moorish state was shaken by a civil war. The country then broke up into numerous fiefdoms. In the centuries that followed, the Moors were expelled from Galicia, León, Navarre, Aragón, Catalonia, and finally Castile.
The comparatively short reign of the Moors is considered to be a period characterized by mutual tolerance and acceptance by Jews, Christians and Muslims for one another. In 1031, however, the Caliphate of Cordoba collapsed and the Taif kingdoms were formed, which soon came under the rule of North African Moors again.
In 1212 an alliance of Christian kings led by Alfonso VIII of Castile drove the Muslims out of central Spain. Nevertheless, the Moorish kingdom of Granada thrived under the Nasrid ranks for another three centuries. This kingdom later became known for architectural feats such as the Alhambra. Alfonso VIII also tried to achieve economic integration. A gold coin of that time, called the Alfonsine Maradeví, is adorned with Arabic inscriptions, but minted in Toledo by a Christian monarch. Their value corresponds exactly to that of an Arab gold dinar. This meant that Castile remained a member of the Muslim monetary system.
On January 2, 1492, Boabdil, the leader of the last Muslim stronghold, was defeated by the troops of the newly unified Christian Spain. The remaining Muslims and also the Spanish Jews, the Sephardim, had to leave Spain or convert to Christianity in the course of this Reconquista. The descendants of the Muslims who converted to Christianity were called Moriscos (Moriscos). They formed an important part of the rural population, e.g. in Aragón, Valencia or Andalusia until the beginning of the 17th century, when they were finally expelled from Spain to Algeria by the Duke of Lerma in 1609-1615.
Some rites in contemporary Spain, such as some utterances in flamenco, are traced back to former Muslim rites of the Moors. The praising "Olé" is said to be traced back to the praising "ALLAH", which is pronounced when a reciter reads from the Holy Qur'an in a particularly beautiful way.
In the later Middle Ages, especially since the time of the Crusades, the Moors were primarily called Saracens.
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